The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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   Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Volume Two, Chapter XVI
                                                  [Page 593]
                     7. ALFRED ROSENBERG


I The political career of Alfred Rosenberg embraced the
entire history of National Socialism and permeated nearly
every phase of the conspiracy. In order to obtain a full
conception of his Influence upon and participation in the
conspiracy, it is necessary to review his political history
and to consider each of his political activities in their
relation to the thread of the conspiracy, which stretches
from the inception of the party in 1919 to the defeat of
Germany in 1945.

It is interesting to note that for Rosenberg 30 November
1918 marked the

     "Beginning of political activities with a lecture about
     the 'Jewish Problem' ". (2886-PS)

An official German pamphlet entitled, "Dates in the History
of the NSDAP", discloses that Rosenberg was a member of the
German Labor Party (afterwards the National Socialist German
Workers Party) in January 1919, and that Hitler joined
forces with Rosenberg and his colleagues in October of the
same year (3557-PS). Thus, Rosenberg was a member of the
National Socialist movement even before Hitler himself.

An extract from "Das Deutsch Fuehrer Lexikon", 1934/35 (3530-
PS) completes the biographical data on Rosenberg:

     "From 1921 until the present, editor of the Voelkische
     Beobachter; editor of the 'N.S. Monatshefte'; 1930,
     Reichstag deputy and representative of the foreign
     policy of the movement; since April 1933, leader of the
     foreign political office of the NSDAP; then designated
     as Reichsleiter; January 1934, deputized by the Fuehrer
     for the spiritual and philosophical education of the
     NSDAP, the German labor front -and all related
     organizations" (350-PS).

In July 1941 Rosenberg was appointed Reichsminister for the
Occupied Eastern Territories. (2886-PS)


Rosenberg was the official National Socialist ideologist.
Through the ideological tenets which he expounded he exerted
an influence upon the unification of German thought, a
unification which was an essential part of the conspirator's
program for seizure of power and preparation
for aggressive war.

                                                  [Page 594]

Rosenberg wrote extensively on, and actively participated
in, virtually every aspect of the National Socialist
program. His first publication was the "Nature, Basic
Principles, and Aims of the NSDAP", which appeared in 1922.
Rosenberg spoke of this book in the following

"During this time (that is, during the early phase of the
party) a short thesis was written, which nevertheless is
significant in the history of the NSDAP. It was always being
asked what points of program the NSDAP had and how they each
were to be interpreted. Therefore, I wrote the principal
program and aims of the NSDAP, and this writing made the
first permanent connection between Munich and local
organizations being organized and friends within the Reich."

Thus, the original draftsman of and spokesman for the party
program was Rosenberg.

Without attempting to survey the entire ideological program
advanced by Rosenberg in his various writings and speeches,
certain of his statements may be considered as indicating
the nature and scope of the ideological program which he
championed. There was not a single basic tenet of the Nazi
philosophy which was not given authoritative expression by

(1) The theory of racism. Rosenberg wrote the "Myth of the
Twentieth Century", published in 1930. At page 479 of this
work (3553-PS), Rosenberg expressed the following views on
the race question:

     "The essence of the contemporary world revolution lies
     in the awakening of the racial types, not in Europe
     alone but on the whole planet. This awakening is the
     organic counter movement against the last chaotic
     remnants of liberal economic imperialism, whose object
     of exploitation out of desperation has fallen into the
     snare of Bolshevik Marxism, in order to complete what
     democracy had begun, the extirpation of the racial and
     national consciousness." (3553-PS)

(2) "Lebensraum". Rosenberg expounded the "Lebensraum" idea,
which was utilized as the dynamic impulse behind Germany's
waging of aggressive war. In his journal, the "National
Socialist Monatshefte" for May 1932, he wrote:

     "The understanding that the German nation, if it is not
     to perish in the truest sense of the word, needs ground
     and soil for itself and its future generations, and the
     second sober perception that this soil can no more be
     conquered in Africa,
                                                  [Page 595]
     but in Europe and first of all in the East -- these
     organically determine the German foreign policy for
     centuries." (2777-PS)

(3) Persecution of Christian Churches. Rosenberg expressed
his theory as to the place of religion in the National
Socialist State in the "Myth of the Twentieth Century",
additional excerpts from which are cited in (2891-PS):

     "We now realize that the central supreme values of the
     Roman and the Protestant Churches, being a negative
     Christianity, do not respond to our soul, that they
     hinder the organic powers of the peoples determined by
     their Nordic race, that they must give way to them,
     that they will have to be remodeled to conform to a
     Germanic Christendom. Therein lies the meaning of the
     present religious search." (2891-PS)

In the place of traditional Christianity, Rosenberg sought
to implant the neo-pagan myth of the blood. At page 114 in
the "Myth of the Twentieth Century" (2891-PS) he stated:

     "Today, a new faith is awakening -- the Myth of the
     Blood, the belief that the divine being of mankind
     generally is to be defended with the blood. The faith
     embodied by the fullest realization, that the Nordic
     blood constitutes that mystery which has supplanted and
     overwhelmed the old sacraments."

Rosenberg's attitudes on religion were accepted as the only
philosophy compatible with National Socialism. In 1940
Bormann, in writing to Rosenberg, made this statement:

     "The churches cannot be conquered by a compromise
     between National Socialism and Christian teachings, but
     only through a new ideology whose coming you yourself
     have announced in your writings."

Rosenberg actively participated in the program for
elimination of church influence. Bormann frequently wrote
Rosenberg in this regard, furnishing him information as to
proposed action to be instituted against the churches and,
where necessary, requesting that action be taken by
Rosenberg's department. See 070-PS dealing with the
abolition of religious services in the schools; 072-PS
dealing with the confiscation of religious property; 064-PS
dealing with the inadequacy of anti-religious material
circulated to the soldiers; 089-PS dealing with the
curtailment of the publication of Protestant periodicals;
and 122-PS dealing with the closing of theological

(4) Persecution of the Jews. Rosenberg was particularly
zealous in his pursuit of the "Jewish Question". On 28 March

                                                  [Page 596]
1941, on the occasion of the opening of the Institute for
the Exploration of the Jewish Question, he set the keynote
for its activities and indicated the direction which the
exploration was to take. He spoke in part as follows:

     "For Germany the Jewish Question is only then solved
     when the Last Jew has left the Greater German space.
     "Since Germany with its blood and its nationalism has
     now broken for always this Jewish dictatorship for all
     Europe and has seen to it that Europe as a whole will
     become free from the Jewish parasitism once more, we
     may, I believe, also say for all Europeans: For Europe
     the Jewish question is only then solved when the last
     Jew has left the European continent." (2889-PS)

Rosenberg had called an Anti-Jewish Congress in June 1944,
but the Congress was cancelled due to military events. (1752-

Rosenberg did not overlook any opportunity to put these anti-
Semitic beliefs into practice. He recommended for instance
that instead of executing 100 Frenchmen as retaliation for
attempts on lives of members of the Wehrmacht, there be
executed 100 Jewish bankers, lawyers, etc. (001-PS). The
recommendation was made with the avowed purpose of awakening
the anti-jewish sentiment.

(5) Abolition of Versailles Treaty. In the realm of foreign
policy, in addition to demanding "lebensraum," Rosenberg
called for elimination of the Treaty of Versailles, and cast
aside any thought of revision of that treaty. In his book,
"Nature, Principles and Aims of the NSDAP", Rosenberg wrote:
     "The National Socialists reject the popular phrase of
     the 'Revision of the Peace of Versailles' as such a
     revision might perhaps bring a few numerical reductions
     in the so-called 'obligations,' but the entire German
     people would still be, just as before, the slave of
     other nations."
     " 'We demand equality for the German people with other
     nations, the cancellation of the peace treaties of
     Versailles and St. Germain.' " (2433-PS)
(6) Foreign Nazi Penetration. Rosenberg conceived of the
spread of National Socialism throughout the world and, as
will be subsequently shown, took an active part in promoting
the infection of other nations with his creed. In the
"Nature, Principles and Aims of the NSDAP", he stated:

     "But National Socialism still believes that its
     principles and
                                                  [Page 597]
     ideology though in individually different suitable ways
     of fight according to racial-national conditions --
     will be directives far beyond the borders of Germany
     for the inevitable fights for power in other countries
     of Europe and America. There too a decision of ideas
     must take place, and the racial-nationalistic fight
     against the ever similar loan-capitalistic and Marxist
     internationalism must be taken up. National Socialism
     believes that once the great world battle is concluded,
     after the defeat of the present epoch, there will be a
     time when the swastika will be woven into the different
     banners of the Germanic peoples as the Aryan symbol of
     rejuvenation." (2455-PS)

Thus, Rosenberg gave authoritative expression to the basic
tenets upon which National Socialism was founded, and
through exploitation of which the conspiracy was
crystallized in action.

(7) Ideological training and education. Rosenberg's value to
the conspiratorial program found official recognition in his
appointment in 1934 as the Fuehrer's Delegate for the Entire
Spiritual and Philosophical Education and Supervision of the
NSDAP. is activities in this capacity were many and varied.
The National Socialist Year Book for the year 1938, at page
180 describes as follows the functions of Rosenberg's office
a the Fuehrer's delegate:

     "The sphere of activity of the Fuehrer's Commissioner
     for all spiritual and ideological instruction and
     education of the movement, its organization, including
     the 'Strength through Joy', extends to the detailed
     execution of all the educational work of the Party and
     of the affiliated bodies. The office, set up by
     Reichsleiter Rosenberg, has the task of preparing the
     ideological educational material, of carrying out the
     teaching programme, and is responsible for the
     education of those teachers suited to this educational
     and instructional work." (3531-PS)

As the Fuehrer's delegate, Rosenberg thus supervised all
ideological education and training in the Party.

It was Rosenberg'. belief that upon the performance of his
new functions as ideological delegate depended the future of
National Socialism. An excerpt from an article by Rosenberg
appearing on page 9 of the March 1934 issue of "The
Educational Letter" states:

     "The focus of all our educational work from now on is
     the service for this ideology, and it depends on the
     result of
                                                  [Page 598]
     these efforts, whether National socialism will be
     buried with our fighting ancestors or whether, as we
     believe, it really represents the beginning of a new
     era." (3552-PS)

In his capacity as the Fuehrer's Delegate for Spiritual and
Ideological Training, Rosenberg assisted in the preparation
of the curriculum for the Adolf Hitler schools. These
schools selected the most suitable candidates from the
Hitler Jugend and trained them for leadership within the
Party. They were the elite schools of National Socialism. An
excerpt from "Documents of German Politics" reads as

     "Voelkischer Beobachter, 19 January  1937. -- 'As
     stated by Dr. Ley, Reichsorganisationsleiter, on 23
     November 1937 at Ordensburg Sonthofen, these Adolf
     Hitler Schools, as the first step of the principle of
     selecting a special elite, form an important branch in
     the educational system of the National Socialist
     training of future leaders [Fuehrernachwuchs]
     "Voelkischer Beobachter dated 24 November 1937. ***

The curriculum has been laid down by Reichsleiter Rosenberg,
together with the Reichsorganisationsleiter and the Reich
Youth Leader." (3529-PS)

Rosenberg exercised further influence in the education. of
Party members through the establishment of community school
for all organizations of the Party. The following statement
is taken from the 1934 edition of "Das Dritte Reich":

     "We support the request of the Fuehrer's Commissioner
     for the supervision of the whole spiritual and
     ideological training and instruction of- the NSDAP,
     Party member Alfred Rosenberg, to organize community
     schools of all organizations of the NSDAP twice a year,
     in order to-show by this common effort the ideological
     and political unity of the NSDAP and the steadfastness
     of the National Socialist will." (3528-PS)

Rosenberg's program was endorsed by Schirach as well as by
Himmler, Ley, and others.

Virtually every phase of National Socialist training came
under Rosenberg's influence, and unified ideological
concepts were inculcated in every echelon of the party due
to his influence. The 1936 edition of "Das Dritte Reich",
under the heading "Education in the Ordensburg" states:

     "Those Party members, selected for training in
     leadership in accordance with such points of view (who
     must have completed their labor service and their
     military service satisfactorily) are to be taught in
     the Ordensburgen by the best teachers in history and
     science of race, philosophy and cul-
                                                  [Page 599]
     ture, economics and specialized training, etc. To
     determine the ideological direction of this education,
     to choose suitable teachers and to train them, is one
     of the tasks of the Senior School of the Party [Hoche
     Schule der Partei] which is to be established in the
     near future and will be placed under the direction of
     the Reich Leader Party member Alfred Rosenberg in his
     capacity as Delegate of the Fuehrer for the Supervision
     of the Entire Spiritual and Ideological Teaching and
     Education of the NSDAP." (3552-PS)

(8) Plunder of art treasures. In his capacity as the
Fuehrer's delegate, Rosenberg established the Institute for
the Exploration of the Jewish Question, in Frankfort on
Main. (This institute, commonly known as the "Hohe Schule",
has been referred to in the discussion of the Plunder of Art
Treasures in Chapter XIV.) Into its library there flowed
books, documents, and manuscripts which were looted from
virtually every country of occupied Europe. As Ideological
Delegate Rosenberg conducted the fabulous art looting
activities of the Einsatzstab Rosenberg, activities which
extended to France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg,
Norway, Denmark, the Occupied Eastern Territories, Hungary,
and Greece. The extent of the plunder is indicated in
document 1015-B-PS which contains a detailed account of the
seizure of over 21,000 valuable objects of art, and in
document 188 in which the looting of the contents of over
71,000 Jewish homes is described.

The importance of Rosenberg's activities as official
ideologist of the Nazi party was not overlooked. The Hart
biography of Rosenberg, entitled, "The Man and His Work"
(3559-PS), states that Rosenberg won the German National
prize in 1937. The creation of this prize was the Nazis'
petulant reply to the award of the Nobel prize to Carlin
Assietsky, an inmate of a German concentration camp. The
citation which accompanied the award to Rosenberg read as

     "Alfred Rosenberg has helped with his publications to
     lay the scientific and intuitive foundation and to
     strengthen the philosophy of the National Socialist in
     the most excellent way. His indefatigable struggle to
     keep National Socialist philosophy clean was especially
     meritorious. Only future times will be able to fully
     estimate the depth of the influence of this man on the
     philosophical foundation of the National Socialist
     Reich. The National Socialist movement, and beyond
     that, the entire German people, will be deeply
     gratified that the Fuehrer has distinguished Alfred
                                                  [Page 600]
     berg as one of his oldest and most faithful fighting
     comrades by awarding him the German National Prize."

The contribution which Rosenberg's book, "The Myth of the
Twentieth Century," made to Nazi ideological propaganda was
appraised in the November 1942 edition of the official
National Socialist book review publication, "Bucher Kunde",
as follows:

     "Next to the Fuehrer's book it has contributed to a
     unique extent to the rise and the spiritual and
     physical development of this people. Twelve years after
     Alfred Rosenberg's 'Mythus' first appeared, a million
     copies of the book have been published and circulated."
     "It must therefore be stated that the phrases coined by
     Alfred Rosenberg have passed into the consciousness of
     the whole people, and it is just today that they are
     proving pillars of an ideological building whose
     completion is the purpose of the fight being waged not
     least today." (3554-PS)

The significance of ideological training in promoting the
aims of the conspiracy is emphasized in a brief statement
which Hitler made to his supreme commanders on 23 November
1939. On that occasion, Hitler said:

     "The building up of our armed forces was only possible
     in connection with the ideological education of the
     German people by the Party." (789-PS)

The contribution which Rosenberg made through formulation
and dissemination of National Socialist ideology was
fundamental to the conspiracy. As apostle of neo-paganism,
exponent of the drive for "Lebensraum," glorifier of the
myth of nordic superiority, and as one of the oldest and
most energetic Nazi proponents of anti-Semitism, he
contributed materially to unification of the German people
behind the swastika. He provided the impetus and philosophy
of National


Rosenberg also actively contributed toward the preparation
for aggressive war through the international activities of
the APA (The Foreign Policy Office of the NSDAP). Rosenberg
became a Reichsleiter, the highest level of rank in the
Leadership Corps, and was made chief of the Foreign
Political Office of the NSDAP in April 1933 (3530-PS). The
Organizational Manual of the NSDAP (2319-PS) describes the
functions of the APA as

                                                  [Page 601]
including the influencing of public opinion abroad so as to
convince foreign nations that Nazi Germany desires peace.
The following excerpt indicates the far-flung activities of
the APA:

     "*** II. 1. The APA is divided into three main offices
     "A. Office for Foreign Referats with the Main Offices
     a. England and Far East
     b. Near East
     c. South East
     d. North
     e. Old Orient
     f. Controls, personnel questions, etc.
     "B. Office of the German Academic Exchange Service.
     "C. Office of Foreign Commerce.
     "2. Moreover, there is in the APA a main office for the
     press service
     and an educational office." (2319-PS)

The Press activities of the APA, designed to influence world
opinion in such a manner as to conceal the conspirators'
true purposes and thus facilitate the preparation for waging
aggressive war, were conducted on an ambitious scale. "A
short Report on the Activities of the APA of the NSDAP"
describes the press activities as follows:

     "*** The Press The Press Division of the APA is
     comprised of persons who together master all the
     languages that are in use. Daily they examine
     approximately 300 newspapers and deliver to the
     Fuehrer, the deputy Fuehrer, and all other interested
     offices the condensations of the important trends of
     the entire world press. I know that these press reports
     are highly praised by all who constantly follow them.
     The Press Division furthermore conducts an exact
     archive on the attitudes of the most important papers
     of the world and-an exact archives on the most
     important journalists of the world. Many embarrassments
     during conferences in Germany could have been avoided
     had one consulted these archives (case of Leumas,
     Nurnberg, 1934; case of Dorothy Thompson; and others).
     Further, the Press Division was able to arrange a host
     of interviews as well as conducting a great number of
     friendly foreign journalists to the various official
     representatives of Germany." (003-PS)

The nature and extent of the activities of the APA are amply
disclosed in a "Report on the Activities of the Foreign
Affairs Bureau of the Party from 1933 to 1943," signed by
Rosenberg (007-PS). This report contains a recital of
widespread activities -in foreign countries. These
activities range from the promotion

                                                  [Page 602]
of economic penetration, to fomentation of anti-Semitism;
from cultural and political infiltration to the instigation
of treason. Activities were carried on throughout the world
and extended to such widely separated points as the Middle
East and Brazil. (007-PS)

(1) Activities in Hungary, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg.
Much of the APA's achievements were brought about through
the subtle exploitation of personal relationship. Activities
in Hungary proceeded as follows:

     "*** The first foreign state visit after the seizure of
     power took place through the mediation of the Foreign
     Affairs Bureau. Julius Gombos, who in former years had
     himself pursued anti-Semitic and racial tendencies, had
     reached the Hungarian Premier's chair. The Bureau
     maintained a personal connection with him." (007-PS)

The APA endeavored to strengthen the War Economy by shifting
the source of food imports to the Balkans:

     "Motivated by reasons of War Economy, the Bureau
     advocated the transfer of raw material purchases from
     overseas to the areas accessible by overland traffic
     routes, i. e., primarily in the Balkans, naturally
     insofar as practicable. At first little heed was paid
     to the Bureau in these endeavors, but it later secured
     the active support especially of the Food Estate
     [Naeurstand]. Through its cooperation, e. g., on the
     subject of fruit and vegetable imports, a very
     substantial shift in the source of imports was
     attained, particularly through the currently initiated
     cooperation with Croatian and Hungarian cooperatives as
     well as with commercial associations all over the
     Balkans." (007-PS)

Activities in Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg were confined
to "observation of existing conditions" and "to the
establishment of relations, especially of a commercial
nature." (007-PS)

(2) Activities in Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq. In Iran the
APA achieved a high degree of economic penetration, in
addition to promoting cultural relations:

     "The Bureau's initiative in developing, with the help
     of commercial circles, entirely new methods for the
     economic penetration of Iran found expression, in an
     extraordinarily favorable way, in reciprocal trade
     "Naturally in Germany, too, this initiative at first
     encountered a completely negative attitude and
     resistance on
                                                  [Page 603]
     the part of the competent state authorities, an
     attitude that had first to be overcome.
     "In the course of a few years the volume of trade with
     Iran was multiplied five-fold, and in 1939 Iran's trade
     turnover with Germany had attained first place. Even
     Soviet Russia, the competitor who had been biggest and
     most dreaded previously, had been eliminated from the
     running. Concurrently with activation of commercial
     relations, the Bureau had also intensified cultural
     relations and had, in conjunction with growing
     commercial influence and in closest collaboration with
     the Iranian Government, created a series of cultural
     institutions headed and directed by Germans."
                                (Signed) Rosenberg  (007-PS)

Rosenberg further reports on APA activities in other parts
of the

     "Afghanistan's neutral position today is largely due to
     the Bureau's activity."
     "The Arab question, too, became part of the work of the
     Bureau. In spite of England's tutelage of Iraq the
     Bureau established a series of connections to a number
     of leading personalities of the Arab world, smoothing
     the way for strong bonds to Germany. In this
     connection, the growing influence of the Reich in Iran
     and Afghanistan did not fail to have repercussions in
     Arabia." (007-PS)

In view of the numerous "personal connections" maintained by
the Bureau in many different countries, it is not difficult
to surmise what Rosenberg meant when he stated at the
conclusion of his report:

     "The Bureau has carried out the initiating of all
     politically feasible projects. With the outbreak of war
     it [the APA] was entitled to consider its task as
     terminated. The exploitation of the many personal
     connections in many lands can be resumed under a
     different guise.

                               "(Signed) Rosenberg" (007-PS)

(3) Activities in Rumania. Annex Two of the report deals
with activities in Rumania. Here the APA's intrigue was more
insidious, its interference in the internal affairs of a
foreign nation more pronounced. After describing the failure
of what Rosenberg terms a "basically sound anti-Semitic
tendency", due to dynastic squabbles and party fights,
Rosenberg describes the APA's influence in the unification
of conflicting elements:

     "What was lacking was the guiding leadership of a
                                                  [Page 604]
     cal personality. After manifold groping trials the
     Bureau believed to have found such a personality -- the
     former Minister and poet, Octavian Goga. It was not
     difficult to convince this poet, pervaded by
     instinctive inspiration, that a Greater Romania, though
     it had to be created in opposition to Vienna, could be
     maintained only together with Berlin. Nor was it
     difficult to create in him the desire to link the fate
     of Rumania with the future of the National-Socialist
     German Reich in good time. By bringing continuing
     influence to bear, the Bureau succeeded in inducing
     Octavian Goga as well as Professor Cuza to amalgamate
     the parties under their leadership on an Anti-Semitic
     basis. Thus they could carry on with united strength
     the struggle for Rumania's renascence internally, and
     her Anschluss with Germany externally. Through the
     Bureau's initiative both parties, which had heretofore
     been known by distinct names, were merged as the
     National-Christian Party, under Goga's leadership and
     with Cuza as Honorary President." (007-PS, Annex II)

Rosenberg's man, Goga, was supported by two "splinter
parties" which had not joined the anti-Semitic trend of
these two parties. Rosenberg has this to say:

     "Through intermediaries, the Bureau maintained constant
     contact with both tendencies, just as it constantly
     consulted with Goga, through Staff Director
     [Stabsleiter] Schickendanz, about tactics to be
     followed." (007-PS, Annex II)

Goga was appointed Prime Minister by the King in December
1937. The influence of Rosenberg's ideology had achieved a
major triumph, for he states:

     "Thus a second government on racial and anti-Semitic
     foundations had appeared in Europe, in a country in
     which such an event had been considered completely
     impossible." (007-PS, Annex II)

Rosenberg's intrigues made a significant contribution to
Nazi preparations for aggressive war, and the benefit to
Germany's position in the Balkans was great. Rosenberg
reports that upon Goga's resignation he left a personal heir
in Marshal Antonescu, who was appointed by Goga as Minister
of War against the wishes of the King. Of Antonescu
Rosenberg says:

     "After Goga' resignation, Antonescu still remained in
     the king's cabinet at Goga's wish. He also maintained
     continued relations with the Iron Guard. Thereby the
     possibility of eliminating the king was at hand -- and
     was ex-
                                                  [Page 605]
     ploited. Antonescu today appears in practice as
     executor of the heritage bequested to him by Goga, who
     had led him from political insignificance into the
     political arena. Thereby a change to Germany's liking
     had become possible in Rumania.
                              "(Signed) Rosenberg." (007-PS)

It will be recalled that on 9/5/1940 Antonescu became
President of the Rumanian Council of Ministers and
immediately suspended the Rumanian constitution. King Carol
abdicated on the following day, and Rumania existed as a
German satellite throughout the war. Rosenberg's aims had
been achieved.

The substantial contribution which Rosenberg had thus made
to Germany's strategic plans for aggressive war is evident
from a brief review of the military action which followed in
the wake of his political maneuvers. Shortly after King
Carol's abdication Antonescu "invited" German troops to
"protect" the Rumanian oil fields. When Hungary subscribed
to the Axis pact a few weeks later, Germany acquired a
continuous land bridge to the Black Sea, through Austria,
Hungary, and Rumania. When Bulgaria subscribed to the Pact
in March 1941, a German thrust southward through Yugoslavia
and Greece became feasible, for with Hungary, Rumania, and
Bulgaria secure, the entire German eastern flank was safe
from attack. A month later, Yugoslavia and Greece were
invaded. Only when they were overcome was Germany free to
attack the Soviet Union. Seven weeks after the fall of
Crete, Germany launched her war on the U.S.S.R. Thus,
Rosenberg's intrigue in Rumania provided a vital link in the
chain of the German strategy of aggression.

(4) Relations with Quisling in Norway. Rosenberg also played
a leading role in the development of fifth-column activities
in Norway. He fostered the development of close relations
between Germany and Quisling, procured financial backing for
Quisling's activities, and brought him into contact with
Raeder and Hitler. Rosenberg kept the Reich informed as to
internal developments in Norway through his contacts with
Hagelin, Quisling's deputy, and took an active part in the
development of plans for a Quisling coup in Norway. The
record is clear that Rosenberg provided the inspiration and
the means for the betrayal of Norway by Quisling and Hagelin
-- treason for which the Norwegian Government has tried,
condemned, and executed them. (007-PS; C-64; C-65; C-66; 004-
PS; 957-PS)

                                                  [Page 606]

Rosenberg participated in the conspiracy to commit war
crimes and crimes against humanity in the areas of the
Occupied East which he administered for over three years.
This area included the Baltic States, White Ruthenia and the
Ukraine, and the Eastern portion of Poland.

(The mass murder and mistreatment of the Eastern peoples,
and the spoliation of their territories is discussed in
Chapter X on Forced Labor, Chapter XIII on Germanization and
Spoliation, Chapter XI on Concentration Camps, Chapter XII
on Persecution of the Jews, Section 5 of Chapter XV on the
SS, and Section 6 of Chapter XV on the Gestapo and SD.)
Rosenberg bears personal responsibility for these crimes.

Rosenberg may contend that some of these crimes were
committed against his wishes. There is, indeed, some
evidence that he protested on occasion, not out of
humanitarian reasons, but on the ground of political
expediency. Rosenberg may also attempt to place the blame
for these crimes on other agencies and other defendants. The
documents prove, however, that he himself formulated the
harsh policies in the execution of which the rimes were
committed; that the crimes were committed for the most part
by persons and agencies within his jurisdiction and control;
that the other agencies which participated in the commission
of these crimes were invited by him to cooperate in the
administration of the East, although the brutal methods
customarily employed by them were common knowledge; and that
his Ministry lent full cooperation to their activities
despite the criminal methods that were employed.

(1) Activities as "Commissioner for the Central Control of
Questions Connected with the East European Region."
Rosenberg was actively participating in the affairs of the
East as early as 20 April 1941, two months prior to the
German attack upon the Soviet Union. On that date he was
designated by Hitler as "Commissioner for the Central
Control of Questions connected with the East European
Region" (865-PS). The initial preparations undertaken by
Rosenberg for fulfillment of his new task indicate the
extent to which he cooperated in promoting the military
plans for aggression. They also show that he understood his
task as requiring the assistance of a multitude of Reich
agencies and that he invited their cooperation.

                                                  [Page 607]
Shortly after his appointment by Hitler, Rosenberg conducted
a series of conferences with representatives of various
Reich agencies (1039-PS). Cooperation of the following
agencies in the administration of the Eastern Territories
was contemplated and solicited by

     Ministry of Economy
     Commissioner for the Four Year Plan
     Ministry of the Interior
     Reich Youth Leadership
     German Labor Front
     Ministry of Labor
     and the SA -- (as well as several others). (1039-PS)

These arrangements, it should be noted, were made by
Rosenberg in his capacity as Commissioner on Eastern
Questions before the attack on the Soviet Union, before
Rosenberg was appointed Minister of the Occupied East, and
before there was any Occupied Eastern Territory for Germany
to administer.

(a) "Solution" of the Jewish Problem. Emphasis must be
placed on Rosenberg's basic attitudes regarding his new
task, and the directives he knew he would be expected to
follow. On 29 April 1941 he stated:

     "A general treatment is required for the Jewish problem
     for which a temporary solution will have to be
     determined (forced labor for the Jews, creation of
     Ghettos, etc.) " (1024-PS)

On 8 May 1941, instructions were prepared for all Reich
Commissars in the Occupied Eastern Territories (1030-PS).
The last paragraph of these instructions reads as follows:

     "From the point of view of cultural policy, the German
     Reich is in a position to promote and direct national
     culture and science in many fields. It will be
     necessary that in some territories an uprooting and
     resettlement of various racial stocks [Voelkerschaften]
     will have to be effected." (1030-PS)

In his "Instructions for a Reich Commissar in the Baltic
Countries and White Russia" (officially referred to together
as the "Ostland"), Rosenberg directs that the Ostland be
transformed into a part of the Greater German Reich by
Germanizing racially possible elements, colonizing Germanic
races, and banishing undesirable elements. (1029-PS)

In a speech delivered by Rosenberg on 20 June 1941 he stated

                                                  [Page 608]
that the job of feeding Germans was the top of Germany's
claim on the East; that there was no obligation to feed also
the Russian peoples; that this was a harsh necessity bare of
any feeling; that a very extensive evacuation would be
necessary; and that the future would hold many hard years in
store for the Russians. (1058-PS)

On 22 June 1941 the German armies invaded the U.S.S.R.

(b) Deportation of Prisoners of War for Labor in the Reich.
On 4 July 1941 a representative of the Rosenberg Bureau
attended a conference on the subject of mobilization of
labor and utilization of Soviet prisoners of war. A
memorandum of this conference (1199-PS) states that among
the participants were representatives of the Commissioner
for the Four-Year Plan, of the Reich Labor Ministry, of the
Reich Food Ministry, and of the Rosenberg Bureau. The
conference proceeded as follows:

     "After an introduction by Lt. Col. Dr. Krull, Lt. Col.
     Breyer of the P.W. department explained that actually
     there was in effect a prohibition by the Fuehrer
     against bringing Russian P.W.'s into the Reich for
     mobilization of labor [Arbeitseinsatz]; but that one
     might count on this prohibition being relaxed a
     "The chairman summarized the results of the discussion
     as indicating that all the interested bureaus
     unqualifiedly advocated and supported the demand for
     utilization of P.W.'s because of manpower needs
     [Arbeitseinsatz] in the Reich. The War Economy and
     Armament office will approach the Commissioner for the
     Four-Year Plan with a request for relaxation of the
     restrictive regulations and express to the Chief of
     Operational Staff of the Armed Forces its point of
     view, accordingly." (1199-PS)
(c) Germanization. On 16 July 1941, the day before
Rosenberg's appointment as Minister of the Occupied East, he
attended a conference at the Fuehrer's Headquarters. At that
time Hitler stated that

     "The Crimea has to be evacuated by all foreigners and
     to be settled by Germans alone." (L-221)

Hitler further stated that Germany's objectives in the East
were three-fold, first, to dominate it; second, to
administer it; third, to exploit it. (L-221)

Thus, the character of the administration contemplated for
the Occupied East was well established before Rosenberg took
office as Minister of the Occupied East. He knew of these
plans and was in accord with them. Persecution of the Jews,
forced labor of prisoners of war, Germanization and
exploitation were basic points of policy at the time he
assumed office.

(2) Activities as Minister for the Occupied Eastern
Territories. On 17 July 1941 Hitler appointed Rosenberg as
Reichsminister for the Occupied Eastern Territories,
territories which included nearly all the area seized by
Germany from the U. S. S. R. (1997-PS)

(a) Rosenberg's complete control over, knowledge of, and
responsibility for all non-military German activities and
policies in the occupied Eastern Territories. The
organizational structure and chain of responsibility within
the Ministry for the Occupied East emphasizes Rosenberg's

A treatise entitled "The Organization of the Administration
of the Occupied Eastern Territories" (1056-PS) is undated
and unsigned, but further information regarding it may be
obtained by reference to document EC-347, Goering's "Green
Folder." Part II, subsection of EC-347 is entitled,

     "Excerpts from the Directives of the Reich Minister for
     the Occupied Eastern Territories for the Civilian
     Administration. (Brown Folder, Pt. I, pp. 25-30)." (EC-

The two paragraphs which follow are identical to two
paragraphs found in document 1056-PS. Thus, 1056-PS is
identified as being a reproduction of Part I of the Brown
Folder which was mentioned in the "Green Folder," and was
issued by the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern

The directives issued by the Rosenberg Ministry itself (1056-
PS) prove the extent of Rosenberg's authority: he was the
Supreme civilian authority in the Eastern Territories. There
was a continuous chain of command from Rosenberg down to
regional administrative officials, extending even to the
local prison warden (1056-PS). The relationship which
existed between the Rosenberg Ministry and other German
agencies varied from full control by Rosenberg, to close
cooperation with them made mandatory by his directives and
by Hitler's orders. Finally, the various subdivisions of the
Ministry were required to submit period-reports of the
situation within their jurisdiction -- so that the numerous
reports of brutality which Rosenberg received were submitted
to him pursuant to his orders. (1056-PS)

The treatise on the organization of Rosenberg's ministry
states as follows:

     "The newly occupied Eastern Territories are
     subordinated to the Reich Minister for the Occupied
     Eastern Territories. By
                                                  [Page 610]
     directions of the Fuehrer he establishes a civil
     administration there upon withdrawal of the military
     administration. He heads and supervises the entire
     administration of this area and represents the
     sovereignty of the Reich in the occupied Eastern
     "To the Reich Ministry is assigned a deputy of the
     Reich Leader SS and Chief of the German Police in the
     Reich Ministry of the Interior." (1056-PS)

The responsibility of the Reich Commissars is described as
     "In the Reich Commissariats, Reich Commissars are
     responsible for the entire civil administration under
     the supreme authority of the Reich Ministry for the
     Occupied Eastern Territories. According to the
     instructions of the Reich Minister for the Occupied
     Eastern Territories the Reich Commissar, as a
     functionary of the Reich, heads and supervises, within
     his precincts, the entire civil administration. Within
     the scope of these instructions he acts on his own
     "Subordinate offices of the Reich Commissar are:
     "General Commissariats,
     "Main Commissariats,
     "District Commissariats." (1056-PS)

The SS was placed under Rosenberg's jurisdiction and

     "The Higher SS- and Police Leader is directly
     subordinated to the Reich Commissar. However, the Chief
     of Staff has the general right to secure information
     from him also. His official title is:
     'The Reich Commissar for the Eastern Territory
     The Higher SS- and Police Leader.'
     "Great stress is to be placed on close cooperation
     between him, the Chief of Staff, and the other Main
     Department Heads of the office of the Reich Commissar,
     particularly with the one for Policies."

The scope of Rosenberg's control over the SS in the Occupied
Eastern Territories is revealed in a decree signed by
Rosenberg, dated 17 July 1941, and found in the
Verordnungsblatt of the Reich Minister for the Occupied
East, 1942 #2, pages 7 and 8. This decree provides for the
creation of summary courts-martial to punish crimes
committed by non-Germans in the East, as determined by the
Reich Commissar. The courts are to be presided over by a
police officer or an SS leader, who have authority to

                                                  [Page 611]
order the death sentence and confiscation of property, and
whose decisions are not subject to appeal. The General
Commissar is given the right to reject a summary Courts'
decision. Thus, the determination of the SS is subordinated
to the authority of Rosenberg's Ministry.

The position of the General Commissar is defined as follows
in the organizational treatise:

     "The General Commissar forms the administrative office
     of intermediate appeal. Within his jurisdiction he
     heads the administration according to the general
     directives of the Reich Minister for the Occupied
     Eastern Territories and the prescriptions of the Reich
     "The SS- and Police Leader assigned to the General
     Commissar is directly subordinated to him; however, the
     Chief of Staff has the general right of requiring
     information from him." (1056-PS)

Regional Commissars are described as follows:

     "The Regional Commissar heads the entire administration
     of the lower administrative office in the Circuit
     District [Kreisgebiet] in accordance with the
     instructions of the Genera] Commissar and the superior
     offices *** The leader of the police unit assigned to
     him is directly subordinated to him." (1056-PS)

Main Commissars are described in these terms:

     "Upon recommendation by the Reich Commissar the Reich
     Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories appoints
     Main Commissars for Main Districts formed by the
     consolidation of several Circuit Districts." (1056-PS)

The order of superiority in the service among these various
officials is stated as follows:

     "The Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern
     Territories is the service superior of the Reich
     Commissar and the officials and the employees
     subordinate to them. The Reich Commissar is the
     superior of all officials and employees of his office
     and of the offices subordinate to him. The General
     Commissar is the superior of the officials and
     employees of his office and of the officials and
     employees of the offices of the Main and Regional
     Commissars. The Main Commissar and the Regional
     Commissar are the superior of the officials and
     employees of their offices." (1056-PS)

Thus, there is a continuous chain of command and of
accountability from the Reich Minister, Rosenberg, down
through each subdivision of the Ministry.

                                                  [Page 612]
Furthermore, Rosenberg had authority to legislate for the
entire area, and the jurisdiction of his Ministry was
exclusive, aside from that of the military. The
organizational treatise states:

     "The Reich Commissars, General Commissars, Main
     Commissars and Regional Commissars (City Commissars)
     are aside from the military agenciesthe only Reich
     authorities [Reichshehoerden] in the Occupied Eastern
     Territories. Other Reich authorities may not be
     established alongside them. They handle all questions
     of administration of the area which is subordinate to
     their sovereignty and all affairs which concern the
     organization and activity of the administration
     including those of the Police in the supervision of the
     native [landeseigenen] agencies and organizations, and
     of the population.
     "The Reich Minister governs the occupied Eastern
     Territories by order of the Fuehrer. He can make the
     law for all the territories."

The following passage shows that the economic exploitation
of the territory was undertaken in fullest cooperation with
the Commissioner of the Four-Year Plan:

     "The Fuehrer has entrusted Reich Marshal Hermann
     Goering, as Commissioner for the Four Year Plan, with
     the supervision of the tasks of the war economy in the
     Occupied Eastern Territories. The economic
     inspectorates and economic commands are active there as
     his representatives [Organe] [see Green Folio]. These
     economic inspectorates and economic commands will be
     substantially absorbed in the agencies of the civil
     administration after the establishment of the civil
     administration." (1056-PS)

Careful provision was made for channeling to Rosenberg
complete and accurate information as to the situation
throughout the territory governed by him:

     "The Reich and General Commissars will determine the
     periods at which the subordinate agencies are to report
     regularly about the general situation without prejudice
     to the duty to provide individual reports and special
     delivery reports (at first, at short intervals which
     can be later lengthened). At first the Reich Commissars
     will give the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern
     Territories a comprehensive report on the situation in
     brief form twice a month, on the first and fifteenth of
     each month. The Reich Minister is to be given a report
     by the Reich Commissar immediately about incidents of
     an especially important nature. The General Commissars
     and Regional Commissars must report
                                                  [Page 613]
     directly to the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern
     Territories by the quickest means particularly
     important incidents, as, for example, widespread
     unrest, more important acts of sabotage and strikes,
     great natural catastrophes and the like, and at the
     same time report them to the next superior agency."

The Second Section of this organizational treatise, entitled
"Working directives for the Civil Administration," contains

     "*** the Hague Rules of Land Warfare which deal with
     the administration of a country occupied by a foreign
     armed power are not valid." (1056-PS; EC-347)

The document continues as follows:

     "The handling of cases of sabotage is the concern of
     the Senior SS- and Police Leader, of the SS- and Police
     Leader and/or the police leaders of the lower echelon.
     Insofar, however, as collective measures against the
     population of a definite region appear appropriate, the
     decision about them rests with the competent Commissar
     on the proposal of the Police Leader. The calling of
     the population for the tasks of guarding can be ordered
     by the Regional Commissar.
     "The assessment of fines of money or goods, as well as
     the ordering of the seizure of hostages and the
     shooting of inhabitants of the territory in which the
     acts of sabotage have taken place, can only be by the
     General Commissar, insofar as the Reich Commissar
     himself does not intervene."
     "The District Commissar is responsible for the
     supervision of all prisons, insofar as the Reich
     Commissar does not decree otherwise." (1056-PS; EC-347)

(b) Rosenberg's Use of His Authority and Power for Criminal
Purposes. The manner in which Rosenberg's authority and
power were wielded is illustrated in other sections of this
volume, which show that in the Eastern Territories millions
of Jews were exterminated; that millions of slave laborers
were pressed into service under indescribable conditions;
that the populace was degraded, starved, beaten, and
murdered; and that the country was stripped of its
resources. However, in order to illustrate the manner in
which Rosenberg participated in the criminal activities
conducted within his jurisdiction, four examples may be

     1. Seizure of Jewish Property. The first illustration
     is contained in the decree signed by Lohse,
     Reichscommissar for the Ostland, which is published in
     the Verordnungsblatt of
                                                  [Page 614]
     the Reichscommissar for the Ostland, 1942, No. 38,
     pages 158 and 159. This decree provides for the seizure
     of the entire property of the Jewish population in the
     Ostland, including the claims of Jews against third
     parties. The seizure was made retroactive to the day of
     the occupation of the territory by the German troops.
     This sweeping decree was issued and published by
     Rosenberg's immediate subordinate, and it must be
     assumed that Rosenberg knew of it and acquiesced in it.
     The power to enact such a decree, as previously
     outlined, arose by virtue of delegation of that power
     by Rosenberg to the Reichscommissar.
     2. Extermination of Jews. The second illustration is
     the report of the prison warden of Minsk that 516
     German and Russian Jews had been killed. The warden
     called attention to the fact that valuable gold had
     been lost due to the failure to knock out the tooth-
     fillings of the victims before they were done away with

     3. Deportations for Forced Labor. The third
     illustration is a letter which Rosenberg wrote to
     Sauckel on 21 December 1942 in the following terms:

          "I thank you very much for your report on the
          execution of the great task given to you, and I am
          glad to hear that in carrying out your mission you
          have always found the necessary support, even on
          the part of the civilian authorities in the
          occupied Eastern territories. For myself and the
          officials under my command this collaboration was
          and is self-evident, especially since both you and
          I have, with regard to the solution of the labor
          problem in the East, represented the same view-
          points from the beginning." (018-PS)

     As late as 11 July 1944 the Rosenberg Ministry was
     actively concerned with the continuation of the forced
     labor program in spite of the retreat from the East. A
     letter from Alfred Meyer, Rosenberg's deputy, addressed
     to Sauckel, dated 11 July 1944 shows that this time it
     is Rosenberg's Ministry that is urging action:

          "1. *** The war employment command
          [Kriegseinsatzkommando] formerly stationed in
          Minsk must continue under all circumstances the
          calling in of your white Ruthenian and Russian
          manpower for military employment in the Reich. In
          addition, the command has the mission to bring
          young boys of 10-14 years of age to the Reich."

                                                  [Page 615]
     4. Economic Exploitation. The final illustration of
     Rosenberg's criminal responsibility is contained in a
     secret letter from Rosenberg to Bormann dated 17
     October 1944 (327-PS). It furnishes a graphic account
     of Rosenberg's activities in the economic exploitation
     of the Occupied East. The first paragraph reads:

          "In order not to delay the liquidation of
          companies under my supervision, I beg to point out
          that the companies concerned are not private firms
          but business enterprises of the Reich, so that
          also actions with regard to them, just as with
          regard to government offices, are reserved to the
          highest authorities of the Reich. I supervise the
          following companies ***." (327-PS)

     There follows a list of nine companies -- a trading
     company, an agricultural development company, a supply
     company, a pharmaceutical company, and five banking
     concerns. The mission of the trading company is stated
     to be:

          "Collection of all agricultural products as well
          as commercial marketing and transportation
          thereof. (Delivery to armed forces and the Reich.)
          " (327-PS)

     The letter continues as follows:

          "During this period, the Z.O. (Central Trading
          Corporation), together with its subsidiaries, has
          Grain                  9,200,000 tons
          Meat and meat            622,000 tons
          Linseed                  950,000 tons
          Butter                   208,000 tons
          Sugar                    400,000 tons
          Fodder                 2,500,000 tons
          Potatoes               3,200,000 tons
          Seeds                    141,000 tons
          Other                  1,200,000 tons
          and                     1,075,000,000
          "The following was required for transportation:
          "1,418,000 railroad box cars and 472,000 tons of
          boat shipping space." (327-PS)

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