Archive/File: imt/nca/nca-02/nca-02-15-criminality-04-06 Last-Modified: 1997/08/27 Preparation for war through the SA training program was commenced in Germany as early as 1933, but the scope of this program was not made public because it constituted a violation of the Treaty of Versailles. The strict secrecy with which the program was surrounded is shown by an order from the Chief of Staff of the SA dated 25 July 1933 (D-44): "Further to my instruction Z II 1351/33 dated 11 July 1933, I find cause to ask all SA authorities to exercise the greatest caution with regard to any publicity given to the SA service not only in the press, but also in the information and news sheets of the individual SA units. "Only during the last few days, the Reich Ministry of the Interior, at the request of the Foreign Office, has given strict instructions to all Reich authorities according to which the most severe control is to be exercised on all publications which might give other countries an opening to construe German infringements of the terms of the Versailles Treaty. "As is known from the Geneva negotiations, our opponents have piled up material collected in Germany and submitted to them, which they use against us on every occasion during the conferences. "From this point of view, the information sheets circulating among the subordinate SA units cause the liveliest concern. I hold all higher SA leaders responsible that any such internal information sheets appearing in the district of their command are submitted to the most stringent control before they go into print, and I feel compelled to draw attention to the threat of a prosecution for treason, pronounced by official instructions issued in the last few days, in cases where such reports, printed no doubt in good faith, are publicized and therefore exposed to the danger of falling into the wrong hands. "On principle, pictures of the technical specialized units of the SA and SS, in particular of the signals, motorized and possibly also of the air wings which now exist outside these formations, are forbidden, such pictures enabling other coun- [Page 156] tries to prove the alleged formation of technical troop units." (D-44) Secrecy was also required in the order assigning a Wehrmacht officer to the SA in January, 1934, to assist in the SA Training Program (2823-PS). A memorandum from SA Headquarters dated 20 January 1934 designates an officer of the Wehrmacht to assist in the military training of SA members and goes on to provide: "For the purpose of disguise, Lt. Col. Auleb will wear SA uniform with insignia of rank according to more detailed regulations of the Supreme SA leaders". (2823- PS) The military training program of the 3A was for many years conducted under the guise of a sports program. This plan was created by Hitler as early as 1920 in founding what he called the National Socialist Sport Troop (SA). Hitler's declaration at the time of the creation of this sports organization was as follows: "The Sport Troop *** is but the bearer of the military thought of a free people." (3215-PS) The fact that the so-called Sports Program was in reality closely associated with and in fact a means of providing military training for German youth, is shown by the following characterization of the program by Lutze, the Chief of Staff of the SA, in an article written in 1939 (3215-PS): "*** This goal setting also served for the decrees of the Fuehrer to the SA of 1935 regarding the renewing of, in 1936 regarding the evaluation of, in 1937 regarding the yearly repetitive exercises of the SA sport badge. Parallel to this decree of the Fuehrer for the physical betterment and military training the organizational and development missions within the SA were met. Out of the conception that the preservation and intensification of the military power of our people must especially be requested by military and physical exercises, the training vas especially carried out systematically in these fields. In 25 schools of the troop and in 3 Reichsfuehrer schools of the SA yearly 22,000 to 25,000 officers and non-coms were trained since 1934 in special educational courses until they possessed the education and examination certificates. In clearly outlined training directives the training goals which had to be achieved yearly were given and at the same time the yearly Reich competitive contests were established. Hand in hand the training of the Fuehrer Corps and corresponding organizational measures and the training at the front proceeded on the broadest basis." (3215-PS) [Page 157] The military nature of the Sports Program is likewise demonstrated by the tests and standards required to obtain the sports award. The Organization Book of the Party lists these tests as follows (2354-PS): "The performance test includes three groups of exercises: Body exercises, Military sports, Topographical (naval) services. "Group I: Body exercises; 100-meter race, Throwing of hand grenades, 3000-meter race. "Group II: Military sports; 25-Kilometer march with pack, Firing of small-caliber arms, Aimed throwing of hand grenades, 200-meter cross-country race with gas masks over 4 obstacles, Swimming or bicycle riding, Basic knowledge of first aid in case of accidents. "Group III: Terrain service; Terrain observation, Estimate of terrain, Estimate of distance, Observing and reporting, Utilization of terrain and general behavior in terrain service." (2354-PS) In 1939, the SA Sports Program was formally recognized, in a decree issued by Hitler, as a military training program. At the same time the SA was openly declared to be an agency for pre- and post-military training, that is, military training prior to and following military service in the Wehrmacht (2383-PS). The decree provided in part as follows: "Der Fuehrer. In amplification of my decree of 16 February 1935, and 18 March 1937, regarding the acquisition of the SA sport insignia and the yearly repetitive exercises I lift the SA sport insignia to the SA military insignia and make it as a basis for pre- imposed military training. [Page 158] "I designate the SA as standard bearer of this training. "These soldiers who honorably were discharged out of the active military service and who were serviceable soldiers are to be placed into the Army ranks for the retaining of their spiritual and physical energy and to be attached to the SA insofar as no other organization of the Party (the SS, NSKK, and SFK) have received them for special training." (2383-PS) The SA military training program was not confined to its members, but extended to the entire youth of Germany. Thus the Chief of Staff of the SA, in re-establishing the sports program in 1935, declared (2354-PS): "In order to give conscious expression to the fostering of a valiant spirit in all parts of the German people, I further decide that this SA Sport Insignia can also be earned and worn by persons who are not members of the movement, inasfar as they comply racially and ideologically with the National Socialist requirements". (2354-PS) The pamphlet entitled "The SA", shows that responsibility for conducting this nation-wide program was lodged in the operational main office of the SA (2168-PS). According to the pamphlet it was the duty of this office to -- "Prepare the fighting training of the bodies of all Germans capable of bearing arms (Wehrfahig) and as preparation therefor must organize the execution of corporal exercises (basic physical training) and sports achievements, so that the widest stratum of the population is laid hold upon and will be kept in condition to bear-arms (Wehrtuchtig) both physically and spiritually, as well as ideologically in character up to greatest old age." (2168-PS) The extent to which the SA carried the military training program into the lives of the German people may be seen from the following excerpt from "Das Archiv" (3215-PS): "Next to the companies of the SA were the sport badge associations (SAG) in which all the militaristic nationals entered who were prepared to voluntarily answer the call of the SA for the preservation of military proficiency. Up until now around 800,000 nationals outside of the SA could successfully undergo the physical betterment as well as the political military training of the SA on the basis of the SA sport badge. "As pronounced proof heretofore it may be shown that alone 13,400 officers and around 30,000 non-coms in the Reserve [Page 159] Corps of the Wehrmacht from its (SA) own ranks stand at the disposal of the SA and can be employed at any time for the direction of SA military forces ***". (3215-PS) In 1939, the extension of the SA military program to non-SA members was officially recognized by Hitler. This occurred in the ordinance for the execution of the Hitler decree of 16 January 1942: "Every German man who has completed his seventeenth year and who shows preliminary requirements for honorary service with the weapon, has the customary duty to win the SA military insignia in preparation for military service. "During the years in the Hitler Youth following his sixteenth year, he is to prepare himself for the winning of the SA military insignia." (2383-PS) The SA, in its military training program, was no mere marching and drilling society. It embraced every phase of the technique of modern warfare. This appears clearly from the articles on military training which appear throughout the issues of "Der Mann". The titles of these articles indicate their substance. The following are a few examples: Article entitled: "Defense Platoon and the Company in Battle" (with diagrams), 27 January 1934, p. 10. Article entitled: "Die Luftwaffe" (with diagrams on Aircraft Gunnery), 3 February 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "Pistol Shooting," 17 February 1934, p.7. Article entitled: "Orientation in Terrain," 10 March 1934,p.7. Article entitled: "First Aid -- ABC," 17 March 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "We go into the Terrain" (relating to map study and map symbols), 24 March 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "What every SA Man must know about Aviation," 21 April 1934, p. 13. Article entitled: "Expert firing in German National Sport" (relating to small caliber firing), 12 May 1934, P. 7. Article entitled: "Chemical Warfare," 19 May 1934, p. 13. Article entitled: "What every SA Man should know about Aviation," 19 May 1934, p. 12. Article entitled: "Flame Throwers on the Front," 26 May 1934, p. 14. Article entitled: "Modern Battle Methods in the View of the SA Man," 2 June 1934, p. 14. [Page 160] Article entitled: "The Significance of Tanks and Motors in Modern War," 4 August 1934, p. 13. Article entitled: "The Rifle 98," 8 September 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "The Combat Battalion" (with description of tactical missions and maneuvers of the battalion), 15 September 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "Air Strategy and Air Tactics," 29 September 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "Gas Protection and the Gas Mask," 6 October 1934, p. 7. Article entitled: "The Pistol 08" (with diagram of the pistol, its nomenclature and field stripping), 6 October 1934, p.7. Article entitled: "Training the SA in Map and Terrain Study," 24 November 1934, p. 4. Article entitled: "The Defense," with subheading "What does the War of Tomorrow look like?" 1 December 1934, p.13. Series of articles by a Wehrmacht officer entitled: "Training in the Army of the Third Reich," beginning on 12 January 1935, p. 13. Series of articles entitled: "Construction and Composition of various units of the Modern Army," written by a Brigadier General in the Wehrmacht -- beginning 26 January 1935, p. 15, and ending 20 April 1935, p. 16. Article entitled: "Small caliber firing" (with sketches of ammunition, rifles, targets, and aiming technique), 26 January 1935, p. 19. Article entitled: "Armies of Tomorrow" (discussion of anticipated developments in motorized and mechanized warfare. One section of the article is devoted to "Plans of foreign countries with respect to motorized armies"), 30 March 1935, p. 14.
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