Archive/File: orgs/canadian/league-for-human-rights/audits/incident-audit.1996 Last-Modified: 1997/05/07 Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents 1996 Presented by The League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada Rochelle Wilner, National Chair Marvin Kurz, National Legal Counsel Dr. Karen Mock, National Director B'nai Brith Canada Lyle Smordin, National President Frank Dimant, Executive Vice-President Pearl Gladman, Director of Field Services This report was prepared by David Cooper, Research & Communications, and edited by Dr. Karen Mock, National Director of the League for Human Rights. Some text in this volume was extracted from previous publications of the League. We are grateful to the volunteers, students and staff for their contribution both to this report and to the continuing work of the League for Human Rights. We also acknowledge the invaluable contributions of everyone who assisted us with the collection of data for this edition of the Audit of Anti- Semitic Incidents, particularly the B'nai Brith Field Staff, Sophie Tapper (Manitoba), Robert Libman (Quebec), Rubin Friedman (National Capital Region), and Joyce Aster (Ontario Region). We also thank Harry Abrams and David Lethbridge for their contribution to the British Columbia section. Special thanks are due to Rochelle Wilner, National Chair, for seeing the Audit through its final stages. No part of this book may be produced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. c 1997 League for Human Rights B'nai Brith Canada 15 Hove Street, Toronto Ontario M3H 4Y8 Tel:(416) 633-6224 Fax:(416) 630-2159 firstname.lastname@example.org www.bnaibrith.ca We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the LAWRENCE TANENBAUM FAMILY CHARITABLE FOUNDATION in the printing and distribution of this publication. Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION II. DEFINITIONS AND DATA COLLECTION Vandalism Harassment III. THE JEWISH COMMUNITY IN CANADA SUMMARY OF DATA Nature of Incidents by Year Geographic Distribution of Incidents From Coast to Coast - Highlights of Specific Incidents IV. HATE IN CANADA The State of the Neo-Nazi Right in Canada Hate on the Internet Recruitment in the Schoolyard Hate Propaganda and Holocaust Denial The Far-Right Against Anti-Racists V. ANTI-SEMITISM IN CANADA - CURRENT CLIMATE AND TRENDS Highlights of Issues and Trends The Climate in British Columbia The Climate in Quebec Polish Skinheads The Climate on Campus Anti-Semitism and the Ethnic Press VI. THE STRUGGLE AGAINST ANTI-SEMITISM AND HATE i. Education Training and Research ii. Legal/Legislative Initiatives Supreme Court Decisions Somalia Inquiry Criminal Code Amendments Hate on the Internet And Still Zundel Telephonic Hate iii. Community Partnerships Intercultural Dialogue Joint Community Action Inter-Jurisdictional Cooperation Other Recent Publications by the League for Human Rights INTRODUCTION B'nai Brith Canada has been at the forefront of the battle against anti-Semitism, racism and bigotry for more than a century. Through the League for Human Rights, B'nai Brith monitors the activities of hate groups in Canada and documents all reported incidents of anti-Semitism. The Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents, published annually since 1982 by the League for Human Rights, is a major vehicle for reporting our findings to the public. In 1996, we witnessed, as in the past few years, that incidents of anti-Semitism continue to become more diffuse in nature. In the early 1990s, trends in hatred and bigotry directed at Canada's Jews were linked to specific activities, including the Gulf War and the rise of the Heritage Front and other neo-Nazi groups in Canada. However, the last four years have seen a more random pattern of anti- Semitism in this country. As in the past, Metropolitan Toronto, Canada's largest and most ethnically diverse city, had by far the largest number of reported anti-Semitic incidents. This is primarily due to the size of the Jewish population, the continued presence of many of the "leaders" of Canada's hate movement, and the ethnic frictions which are usually evident in all large and ethnically diverse cities. Despite an apparent decline in organized hate activity, and in the overall level of incidents in 1996, several serious incidents of anti-Semitism during the past year proved to be disturbing. In April, the Jewish National Fund office, located in the Calgary Jewish Community Centre, received a package bomb that injured an employee. Fortunately, the bomb malfunctioned and only partially detonated, thus sparing the Centre and the many people inside its full impact. In Toronto, a house was broken into and severely vandalized with swastikas and other anti-Jewish graffiti. In Winnipeg, a Jewish group home for teens was vandalized extensively with anti-Semitic graffiti. On the eve of Yom Kippur, the Jewish day of atonement, a former Front de l'Liberation de Qu‚bec (FLQ) bomber issued a statement to the press that contained threats of violence to the Jewish community and a number of its individual leaders. As will be seen in the analysis of the trends in the data, there has been a dramatic increase in the spread of anti- Semitism via the Internet and the so-called ethnic press. Neither of these trends has been included in the statistics as their impact is not quantifiable, although it is felt broadly throughout the community. Despite several serious cases and systemic trends, positive steps have been made in combatting anti-Semitism, racism and bigotry in Canada this year. The influence and impact of organized neo-Nazi groups remains low; however, there are indications that the Heritage Front and others are starting to rebuild their grassroots movements and continue to recruit. Bill C-41, requiring sentence enhancement for perpetrators of hate-motivated crimes, was enacted into law in September 1996. This law recognizes the increased victim impact of crimes directed at minority communities, and provides for penalties which reflect the hate motivated nature of these offenses. Several important court cases took place in 1996 involving the spreading of hate towards Jews. In the case of Jim Keegstra, the Alberta teacher accused of promoting Holocaust denial and conspiracy theories in his classroom, the Supreme Court of Canada upheld Keegstra's conviction as constitutional. The Supreme Court confirmed its earlier decision against Keegstra for spreading hatred and promoting anti-Semitism in his classroom. In 1996 the Supreme Court also upheld the New Brunswick Human Rights Commission's order to keep Malcolm Ross, known purveyor of Holocaust denial and other racist doctrines, out of the classroom. Both of these unanimous decisions by Canada's highest court have sent a very strong message that hate will not be tolerated in Canada. The Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents is an important resource for government, human rights organizations, educators, police, media and others to gauge anti-Semitism in Canada. By providing an analysis of the nature and extent of reported anti-Semitic activity in Canada, the Audit provides a model for data collection and analysis, and helps guide decisions in resource allocation, legislative development, and plans for formal educational initiatives to confront racist attitudes and to sensitize all Canadians to the problems of hatred and intolerance. Finally, the Audit also serves as an important indicator of the general level of racism in Canada. The Audit is part of the League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith's commitment towards combatting anti-Semitism. Canadians must be able to identify and name it if we ever hope to eradicate it. DEFINITIONS AND DATA COLLECTION The annual Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents is a record of reported incidents only. The Audit depends on the voluntary reporting of anti-Semitic incidents to the League for Human Rights through B'nai Brith offices and the nationwide B'nai Brith Lodge network. Recorded incidents may have been reported by victims directly to our offices, or may have been reported by other sources. Experts in the analysis of crime, including officers in police intelligence units, suggest that only a small percentage (in the neighborhood of approximately 10%) of hate crimes or harassment are ever reported to any source. The situation is akin to spousal or child abuse, both of which are notoriously under-reported. Reported incidents are investigated for corroboration, then documented and analyzed by League staff to determine appropriate courses of action. Proper investigation is vital to determine whether reported incidents are indeed racially motivated, and whether they are anti-Semitic in nature. For example, harassment of a Jewish person in the workplace may be real but may not be anti-Semitic. As well, while general pamphleteering by a hate group will be condemned by the League, and while the League will be actively involved in countering its effects, if such pamphleteering does not specifically target Jews, then for the purposes of the Audit, it will not be included as an anti-Semitic incident. Finally, where an anti-Semitic mail campaign takes place, or where a number of Jewish businesses or people are targeted by one group or one individual for harassment or vandalism in a defined area over a defined period of time, such events are recorded as a single incident. Incidents are catalogued for the Audit in two broad categories: vandalism and harrassment. Vandalism Vandalism is defined as an act involving physical damage to property. It includes graffiti, swastikas, desecrations of cemeteries and synagogues, other property damage, arson and other criminal acts such as thefts and break-ins where an anti-Semitic motive can be determined. Harassment Harassment includes anti-Semitic hate propaganda distribution, hate mail and verbal slurs or acts of discrimination against individuals. Death threats and bomb threats against individuals and property, as well as any kind of physical assault, are also included in this broader category. THE JEWISH COMMUNITY IN CANADA - A Brief Overview The 1991 census published by Statistics Canada reported that 356,315 of the 27 million people in Canada were Jewish. This amounts to only 1.3% of the entire population of the country. In 1991, Toronto and Montreal were reported to have 162,605 and 101,210 Jewish residents respectively, and no other locale had more than 20,000 Jewish residents. In fact, Jews comprise less than one half of one per cent of the population of Canada outside of the two aforementioned cities. The fact that Toronto and Montreal have the two largest Jewish communities in Canada (three quarters of the Jews in this country live in these two urban areas, with 45.6% in Metropolitan Toronto, and 28.4% of Canada's Jews living in Greater Montreal) accounts for the fact that the overwhelming majority of reported cases of anti-Semitism occur in these centres. Vancouver, the third largest Canadian city, has 19,375 Jewish residents (5.8% of the Jews in Canada), 1.3% of the total Vancouver population of 1,584,115. The Ottawa-Hull area, known as the National Capital Region, is home to nearly 12,000 Jews, 3.3 % of the Jewish population in Canada. Winnipeg, with 15,000 Jewish residents, has the highest concentration of Jews (2.3%) of any city other than Montreal (3.3%) and Toronto (4.2%). In no other Canadian urban area do Jews make up more than one per cent of the total population. Jews have lived in Canada since the 18th century. However, the first significant waves of Jewish immigration from Europe started in the 1870's. Eastern European Jews often moved to Winnipeg or to rural areas to work as farmers - one of the few occupations for which immigrants were allowed into Canada. During the Second World War the Canadian government refused to allow Jewish immigrants fleeing the Holocaust to enter this country, with one government official stating that "none is too many" when asked how many Jews would be let into Canada. However, thousands of Jewish war survivors were permitted entry in the late 1940's and 1950's. The impact of post-war ‚migr‚s on the Canadian Jewish community is perhaps the most significant difference between patterns in American and Canadian Jewish immigration. Holocaust survivors who came to Canada comprise a more significant percentage of the total Jewish community here than in the United States, largely because the Canadian government had restricted Jewish immigration earlier. Until the 1970's Montreal was regarded as the principal hub of Canadian Jewry. Although other cities had Jewish communities, Montreal was the oldest and largest, and was considered the most important Jewish centre in Canada. However, the threat of Quebec separation in the mid-1970's was a frightening prospect for many Jews, the vast majority of whom were Anglophone. Thousands of Montreal jobs were relocated to Ontario, as were tens of thousands of Montreal's Jews. Although the new census data will not be available until late in 1996, a recent study conducted by J. Torczyner, D. Brotman, and J. Brodbar (1995) entitled "Rapid Growth and Transformation: Demographic Challenges Facing the Jewish Community of Greater Toronto" suggests further shifts in the Jewish population, particularly in the wake of the ongoing Quebec Referendum debate and the increase in nationalist rhetoric. Today, Toronto is considered the Jewish capital of Canada, with approximately 165,000 people in the community. Canadian Jewry tends to be more traditional than the American Jewish population. In 1990, forty per cent of affiliated Jews identified themselves as Orthodox, another forty per cent as Conservative, and twenty per cent as members of the Reform movement. As well, in recent years Reconstructionist congregations have opened in Toronto and Montreal. SUMMARY OF DATA - _Nature of Incidents by Year There were 244 anti-Semitic incidents reported to the League for Human Rights in 1996. This represents a decrease of 26.3% from the 331 incidents in 1995, which had been the highest number reported in 14 years of documentation._ The number of reported incidents of anti-Semitic vandalism was 81, up only 1.25% from the 80 incidents reported last year. The fact that the incidents of vandalism remained essentially the same as 1995, which had been 13% lower than the year before, continues a trend attributable to the demise of such groups as the Church of the Creator and the Heritage Front. It appears that ongoing community vigilance and education is also keeping vandalism from seriously increasing. Anti-Semitic harassment dropped to 163 reported incidents in 1996 from 251 in 1995, a decrease of 35.1%. Harassment includes the distribution of hate propaganda; however, it must be noted that incidents of anti-Semitism spread over the Internet have not been included. Table 1 and Figure 1 (below) summarize the total number of anti-Semitic incidents reported to the League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada over the last 15 years. Figures 1(a), (b), (c) present the three year total average, and yearly incidents of vandalism and harassment respectively. [Transcription note: Graphic representations of the data following have been omitted. Knm] Table 1. Nature of Incidents by Year Year Vandalism Harassment Total 1982 19 44 63 1983 25 23 48 1984 60 23 26 1985 52 66 95 1986 23 43 55 1987 18 32 55 1988 52 37 112 1989 63 60 176 1990 60 113 210 1991 50 150 251 1992 46 201 196 1993 105 150 256 1994 92 151 290 1995 80 251 331 1996 81 163 244 Geographic Distribution of Incidents There were 98 reported incidents of anti-Semitism in 1996 in Toronto, down 38.4% from 159 incidents last year. Toronto is the largest city in Canada, and is also home to the largest Jewish population. Not surprisingly, anti-Semitic incidents in Toronto represented 40.2% of all reported incidents in 1996. Montreal, which in 1995 reported 52 incidents, had 30 anti- Semitic cases in 1996 (12.3% of the total), Ottawa figures also declined, with 27 reported cases in 1996 (11.1%), down from 37 in 1995. Last year the Audit reported an appreciable increase in anti- Semitic incidents in smaller communities in Ontario. The 28 incidents in 1994 represented a 40% increase over the year before; in 1995 there were 29 anti-Semitic incidents in regional Ontario; and in 1996 there were 32 incidents, 13.1% of the total number of reported incidents in Canada. This trend shows a consistent increase of incidents in regional Ontario outside of Toronto and Ottawa. It is clear that as police hate crimes units clamp down on hate and bias crimes in the cities, hate groups have increased their recruitment activity in smaller communities, such as Pickering, Brampton, Oakville, St. Catharines and the Niagara region. Winnipeg reported 17 incidents in 1996, consistent with the number of reported cases of anti-Semitism over the last four years, and 7.0% of all incidents. It is noteworthy that Winnipeg's figures remain steady while the overall national level has declined. In 1995, the number of reported incidents in Winnipeg represented only 4.2% of all reported incidents. Similar to Winnipeg, the number of reported incidents in the western provinces, while declining in real terms, declined at a significantly lower level than the rest of the country. In Alberta and Saskatchewan there were 11 reported incidents in 1996 (4.5% of reported incidents. It is noteworthy that Winnipeg's figures remain steady while the overall national level has declined. In 1995, the number of reported incidents in Winnipeg represented only 4.2% of all reported incidents. Similar to Winnipeg, the number of reported incidents in the western provinces, while declining in real terms, declined at a significantly lower level than the rest of the country. In Alberta and Saskatchewan there were 11 reported incidents in 1996 (4.5% of total reported incidents), slightly down from 13 reported cases in 1995; and the number of reported incidents in British Columbia remained consistent with 23 incidents in both 1995 and 1996, representing 9.4% of the total number in Canada. Western Canada's numbers contras The Maritimes had 6 reported incidents in 1996 (2.5% of total incidents), double the number of incidents reported in the eastern provinces in 1995. Table 2 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF INCIDENTS Vandalism Harassment Vandali Harassm Threats Assault 1995 1996 sm ent s MARITIME 3 2 1 3 6 S QUEBEC Montreal 12 11 6 1 52 30 Other 1 ONTARIO Toronto 21 67 5 5 159 98 Ottawa 15 10 2 37 27 Other 17 15 29 32 MANITOBA 5 11 1 14 17 ALTA/SAS 4 6 1 13 11 K B.C. 3 20 23 23 Totals 81 135 15 7 331 244 From Coast to Coast - Highlights of Specific Incidents January The editor of Peachland newspaper in British Columbia, receives unsolicited Institute for Historical Review Holocaust-denial material. In Toronto, a knife wielding man screaming anti-Semitic epithets, threatens and assaults a Jewish individual. The man is arrested and charged with assault. February Stickers from the National Socialist German Workers Party - Overseas Organization (NSDAP-AO), an American neo-Nazi organization, are found on cars outside a B'nai Brith meeting. March In Winnipeg, a young hockey player is the victim of anti- Semitic slurs by a player from a rival team. The coach of the offending player, a police officer with the Winnipeg Police, suspends the player for his misconduct. A Jewish individual, in Toronto, reports being harassed by Polish skinheads (Polskas) while walking on the street. Anti- Semitic diatribes become almost a regular feature in the Canadian Polish press. April NSDAP-AO posters commemorating Hitler's birthday are posted on a lamppost outside a Winnipeg school. The Jewish National Fund office located in the Calgary Jewish Community Centre receives a package bomb that fortunately malfunctions. The bomb's detonator, which did ignite, injures the secretary opening the package. May A Professor of German language in PEI receives unsolicited German language hate material denying the Holocaust. June In Winnipeg, a swastika is carved in the grass with a lawn mower in front of a children's playground. In Sarnia, on the eve of "Aryan Fest Day," two juveniles vandalize a home owned by second generation Holocaust survivors. The youths spray paint swastikas, the slogan "Brennan das Jude" (burn all Jews), and other neo-Nazi symbols on the wall of the house and on the street. July In Toronto, a house belonging to a Jewish family in the suburb of North York is broken into and vandalized extensively with anti-Semitic graffiti. Nothing is stolen from the house. In Nepean, a suburb of Ottawa, 10-15 street signs are defaced with swastikas, and various phrases such as "white power" and "niggers." August In Winnipeg, a Jewish group home for teens is vandalized with swastikas. A staff member's car is set on fire. A sign at a construction site for a new synagogue in Vancouver is defaced with a swastika and the words "Juden Raus" (Jews Out). September A woman at an East Coast university reports that she is being harassed by a former friend and classmate regarding her decision to convert to Judaism. The person routinely makes anti-Semitic remarks to the woman. In a student residence at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, a swastika is painted over an Israeli flag in a mural depicting the flags of various countries. October Beginning in October and continuing to date, an individual leaves the same anti-Semitic message on voice-mail systems of several Toronto Jewish-owned businesses and organizations. November In Montreal, Le Soleil columnist Michel Vastel exclaims in a radio interview that Jews should apologize to Christians for crucifying Christ. In a joint forces operation by various police forces, two individuals are arrested in the Durham region for distributing hate material to schools and residential neighborhoods. A sticker "eliminate non-Whites" is stuck on the residence door of a Jewish Student at the University of Western Ontario (London). December A mock parcel bomb, containing all the ingredients of a bomb, except for explosives, is left at the London Jewish Community Centre. In Toronto, an individual calls 911 from a phone booth claiming to have planted bombs in several synagogues. The police are forced to evacuate the synagogues, disrupting several wedding celebrations in progress. HATE IN CANADA The State of the Neo-Nazi Right in Canada In the last few years, the organized neo-Nazi right in Canada has become somewhat fragmented. The Heritage Front, which rose to prominence from 1990 to 1994, declined rapidly after the expos‚ in 1994 of Grant Bristow, a Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) "mole," and the arrest of Wolfgang Droege. Since the demise of the Heritage Front, no single individual or group has been able to rebuild and bring order to the far-right movement in Canada. There are several reasons for this lack of leadership. First, no dynamic individual has emerged with the skills or a focused agenda to unify the various groups within the hate movement. Secondly, after the "Grant Bristow Affair" a great deal of suspicion remains within the extreme right regarding possible infiltration by police or CSIS "moles." As a result, there is a reluctance to create an organization with an identifiable leader and hierarchy similar to the pre-1994 Heritage Front. That is, in Canada, groups have adopted the strategy of "leaderless resistance," creating small cells of individuals to elude infiltration. Recently, there has been an increase in the number of these cells in Canada, a pattern similar to the United States. Thirdly, until recently some of the key activists of the hate movements such as George Burdi of the Church of the Creator, and Wolfgang Droege of the Heritage Front have been serving jail terms. Despite these factors, which have contributed to the far right's fragmentation and apparent decline, there continues to be recruitment in high schools and suburban areas. There has also been a steady increase in the proliferation of hate on the Internet, perpetrated by various individuals and small groups. Legal problems persisted this year for several members of Canada's far right. In late April, Matt McKay, a former member of the Airborne Division, and Robert Welsh, a suspected former leader of the violent white supremacist Northern Hammerskins, were charged in connection with the murder of Gordon Kuhtey in Winnipeg in 1991. Police believe that Kuhtey was killed because his attackers thought he was gay. In March, Canadian authorities deported Oliver Bode, a friend of Holocaust-denier Ernst Zundel, after he was red- flagged at Pearson International Airport because of his 12 neo-Nazi hate crime convictions in Germany. Despite an appeal, Bode was ordered out of the country. Also in March 1996, Charles Scott, last year's "Aryan of the Year," was ordered by the Canadian Human Rights Commission (CHRC) to shut down a hate line. The use of telecommunications to promote hatred violates the Canadian Human Rights Code. In November, two individuals were charged in Oshawa, Ontario, for willfully promoting hatred. The two are alleged to have distributed a large amount of NSDAP-AO material throughout the Durham region. The trial is set for early 1997. In 1996, two cases against the far right did not succeed. In March, charges of defamatory libel and conspiracy to promote hatred against Jews were brought against Ernst Zundel by Holocaust survivor Sabina Citron. However, charges were withdrawn by the Crown due to insufficient evidence. In April, a Federal Court judge dismissed a contempt charge against the Heritage Front due to inadequacies in the evidence. The case was launched by the CHRC which alleged that the Heritage Front leader Wolfgang Droege and member June French had violated a court order not to communicate hate messages on the telephone, by setting up another line after the Heritage Front hate line had been shut down. Both cases indicate the importance of gathering sufficient evidence and preparing sound cases when bringing hate mongers to court. An interesting twist occurred this year, when Gary Botting of Victoria B.C., a former recipient of the George Orwell Free Speech Award from Doug Christie's Canadian Free Speech League, denounced Christie's League as a front for "anti- Semitic pro-Nazi propaganda." Christie is the Victoria lawyer who has defended a string of Holocaust-deniers including Ernst Zundel, James Keegstra, and Malcolm Ross, among other members of the far right in Canada. Botting, who once testified on behalf of Zundel, returned his award to Christie and denounced both Zundel and Christie. Hate on the Internet There is evidence that, despite the various setbacks, elements of Canada's far right remain alive and well, particularly in "cyberspace." The League has documented the beginnings of the use of computers by hate groups in the last few years. But in 1996, under the rubric of webmaster Marc Lemire's "Freedom Site," Canada's far right has taken to the Internet in a big way. Most of the ideologues of Canada's extreme right, such as Paul Fromm, Ernst Zundel, and Doug Christie have established sites on the World Wide Web both to disseminate their propaganda and recruit new "foot soldiers" to their cause. The growing sophistication of these web sites, including their use of RealAudio which allows for real time audio broadcasts, is testimony to the importance these individuals place on the Internet as a tool to maximize their influence. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to measure the real impact of the Internet in terms of hate recruitment. The Internet has indeed proved to be a boon to both those who are actively seeking hate material and to those who want to disseminate it. The Internet's attractiveness lies in its ability to reach a diverse audience and to give the hate mongers a level of credability, control, and influence that far outweighs their numbers. In the most recent issue of their fundraising letter, the Institute for Historical Review (IHR) stresses the importance of its Internet presence and sums up the reasons it has become such a useful tool for the extremist right: Probably our single most important achievement in recent years has been through the Internet 'information superhighway' computer network. Around the clock and around the world, millions can instantly access hard- hitting IHR pamphlets and Journal articles on the World Wide Web. Crossing national boundaries and defying central control, we regularly reachnetwork. Around the clock and around the world, millions can instantly access hard-hitting IHR pamphlets and Journal articles on the World Wide Web. Recruitment in the School Yard Despite the growth of the Internet, person-to-person recruitment remains important. The most prevalent type of recruitment takes place in the schoolyards of junior and senior high schools. Hate groups continue to target teenagers who are at a vulnerable stage of development. Recruitment by the Heritage Front, Northern Hammerskins, and other skinhead groups remains strong in Toronto and surrounding areas, especially in the regions of Durham, Halton-Peel, St. Catherines and Niagara. Charles Scott and the Aryan Nations continue to recruit actively in the interior of British Columbia. As the League points out in its "Is Your Child a Target?" pamphlet for parents and teachers: Young people are more likely to accept at face value the racist ideology of the hate monger. They are often na‹ve and easily brainwashed by racist propaganda because they don't have the experience or facts at hand to refute the lies and myths fed to them ùLonely, marginalized youth seeking a sense of belonging are both the most attractive targets for racists and their most useful tool once recruited (see Appendix for full copy). Hate Propaganda and Holocaust Denial Along with recruiting, the distribution and dissemination of hate material continues relatively unabated. Even materials on Revenue Canada's list of prohibited imports seem to seep through Canada's porous border. The high volume of imports makes effective control of the importation of hate material very difficult. However, in June, the League alerted Revenue Canada with the help of the Metropolitan Toronto Police Hate Crimes Unit, and succeeded in preventing the distribution of The Turner Diaries (see page 34). In addition, heightened awareness raised by police hate crimes units has resulted in police forces making some headway in slowing the distribution of hate material. In November 1996 in Durham, west of Toronto, the regional police, with the assistance of Metro Toronto Police and the Ontario Provincial Police, arrested two individuals who were distributing hate propaganda in school yards and residential neighbourhoods. In British Columbia, police arrested an individual who was distributing material in the Lower Mainland. However, Ernst Zundel, based in Toronto, continues to publish and disseminate Holocaust denial material world-wide, both on the Internet and through the exports of his publishing house, Samisdat. The Far-Right Against Anti-Racists The far right has also begun to try to take advantage of legal means to thwart the efforts of anti-racist activists. Alan Dutton, Executive Director of the Canadian Anti-Racism Education and Research Society based in Vancouver, is currently being sued by an outspoken radio commentator, Charles Maclean. This action followed complaints by Dutton to the CRTC, concerning comments made by a variety of right- wing guests (Paul Fromm, David Irving) on Maclean's radio program. David Lethbridge, Director of the Salmon Arm Coalition Against Racism, is being sued for defamation by Eileen Pressler of the Council for Public Affairs. Such cases require significant amounts of money for legal defense. But the "libel chill" approach has not at all had the effect of silencing the critics of the far-right. If anything, it has strengthened the resolve of anti-racists to network more effectively with each other and to ensure a stronger legal position against racist hate mongers. ANTI-SEMITISM IN CANADA - CURRENT CLIMATE AND TRENDS Highlights of Issues and Trends As in past years, several trends in hate activity and anti- Semitism can be discerned from the statistical data. Two provinces worthy of highlighting are British Columbia and Quebec. B.C. has seen an increase in organised hate group activity, especially after several eastern-based hate mongers sought "greener pastures" in the west. Since the referendum last year, the political climate in Quebec continues to cause deep anxiety within the Quebec Jewish community. Another issue worth noting is that despite a decline in most right-wing groups, there has been an upsurge in the growth of the Polish skinhead movement. A number of reported incidents of hate and anti-Semitism on college and university campuses indicates that this remains an important issue to be addressed. Finally, anti-Semitism continues to be fueled by blatant anti-Semitic slurs and rhetoric in several so-called "ethnic" newspapers in Canada. The Climate in British Columbia Overt anti-Semitism and racism appeared to have increased in British Columbia in 1996. The circle which includes Doug Christie, Eileen Pressler, Paul Fromm, Ron Gostick, Ernst Zundel, Tony McAleer, Bernard Klatt, and Glen Kealey continues to hold and attend meetings in various parts of the province. Several important meetings of known racists and anti-Semites were held during the past year in B.C. The "Second Canadian Free Speech Conference" met in Surrey on March 23rd; the "Canadian Free Speech League" conference took place on October 26th, in Victoria; the Canadian League of Rights "Third Option" scheduled a conference for October 18-19 in Edmonton, but this was later moved to Leduc, B.C. The hotel in Edmonton cancelled the conference after being advised "that the main speakers are well known promoters of anti- Semitism and racism." Speakers at these meetings included most of the individuals listed above as well as speakers from the Heritage Front (e.g., Steve Dumas). With Charles Scott's move to the Creston-Yahk area at the end of 1995, 1996 became a year of intense white supremacist Christian Identity activity and recruiting in the Kootenays. The Canadian League of Rights also met repeatedly in the Kootenays, holding nine meetings in as many days in Crescent Valley, Creston, Trail, Slocan City, Nakusp, Cranbrook, Meadow Creek, Nelson, and New Denver. A cache of militia weapons and Christian Identity literature was found in Smithers, B.C. during the summer, and reported by the RCMP in October, sOctober, suggesting a probable pathway of safe houses for adherents to the U.S. militia movement in B.C. and across the Canada. In Victoria, a mixed message was sent to those groups, who might want to use public facilities to hold meetings to promote their racist hate causes. While the Victoria city councillors agreed to restrict hate groups from using public facilities, the Victoria Public Library voted against such a measure. The issue arose when anti-racist activists and the local B'nai Brith Canada lodge learned that Doug Christie's Free Speech League was holding meetings at the Victoria Public Library. The objection was raised that their presence created a poisoned environment for other users of the library, including Holocaust survivors and various visible minority groups. The Climate in Quebec The year 1996 was distressing for the Jewish community in post-referendum Quebec. On October 30, 1995 the Quebec population voted by a very narrow margin not to separate from Canada. Following the infamous referendum night remarks of former Premier Jacques Parizeau - blaming the sovereignist defeat on "money and the ethnic vote," long- time separatist hard-liner Pierre Bourgault called the Jewish, Italian and Greek communities racist for their block vote against Quebec sovereignty. Against the backdrop of this tense post-referendum atmosphere, in 1996 there were a number of high profile incidents involving the Jewish community of Quebec in one way or another. When analyzed individually, most may seem to be isolated cases. When combined, one cannot ignore the perception of a pattern that has emerged - and many have concluded that anti-Semitic demons from Quebec's past history have been reawakened. In March, the community was in an uproar as Quebec's language watchdog, l'Office de la langue francaise, urged some stores to remove imported Kosher for Passover products from their shelves because they did not have labels in French. Despite the fact that l'Office eventually reached a deal exempting the limited Kosher for Passover products from labeling requirements, many Jews felt that their community was being unfairly targeted. This feeling was reinforced by the decision of l'Office shortly thereafter to pursue Schwartz' delicatessen for minor sign law violations. While Schwartz' delicatessen is no longer Jewish-owned, it is still perceived to be a Jewish institution. During the summer, senior Radio Canada reporter Normand Lester caused a stir with his claim that he could not be treated in French at the Jewish General Hospital. The isolated case of one nurse who was led to believe that Mr. Lester was English speaking and apparently insisted that he speak English, became front-page news in the French media. An episode such as this sends out a very negative and false signal to the francophone majority about the attitude of the Jewish community. The Jewish General Hospital is a fully bilingual institution, and has served the Quebec population admirably for over half a century. Much was also made last summer of the religious background of English rights activist Howard Galganov. In an apparent attempt to slur him, La Presse journalist Gilles Paquin established an irrelevant link between Galganov's recent political campaign and his participation in a Jewish Defense League activity over 20 years ago. The JDL organization today is considered by many to be racist and it is banned in Israel. Bloc Quebecois leader Michel Gauthier and columnists Pierre Bourgault and Michel Vastel called on the Jewish community to dissociate itself from Galganov, thus exhibiting the intolerant, misguided view that the man's political ideology was related in some form to his religion. In September, concern reached its apex on the eve of Yom Kippur, the holiest day of the year on the Jewish calendar, when convicted FLQ terrorist Raymond Villeneuve, in a newsletter entitled La Tempˆte (the Storm), denounced English speaking Montreal Jews for their long standing opposition to Quebec separation and warned that Jews could face confrontation if they continued to oppose separation. "If there is trouble after Quebec becomes independent, nationalists will remember who was against them." In a subsequent radio interview he spoke of intimidation and even Molotov cocktails. The Jean-Louis Roux affair and its troubling aftermath erupted later that year. It was disclosed that Quebec's Lieutenant Governor had drawn a swastika on his University lab coat during the Second World War and participated in an anti-conscription demonstration that eventually degenerated into a riot where storefronts of Jewish merchants were smashed. Sovereignists called for the immediate resignation of Roux who is a committed federalist. Both Canadian Jewish Congress and B'nai Brith Canada asked for an explanation and apology. Roux opted to resign before meeting with Jewish community leaders where he offered an apology. Some members of the French media irresponsibly laid blame on the Jewish community for Roux's resignation, most notably Pierre Foglia of La Presse who wrote a cynical and inaccurate portrait of the community's involvement in the Roux affair. Jewish community organizations, which he maliciously called "le Grand Tribunal Permanent de l'Antisemitisme" did not call for Roux to resign. Foglia's column prompted numerous anti- Semitic hate messages, many quoting him. This episode presents us with an illustration of how careless misinformation can be used by people with an anti-Semitic or racist inclination to justify and to bolster their own hatred. It also aided in unleashing a great deal of antagonism and name-calling, which compromises relations between the francophone majority of Quebec and the Jewish community. The Roux affair reopened important debate about Quebec's anti-Semitic past. B'nai Brith Canada sees this as a positive opportunity to confront a very dark period in the province's history and by so doing, to illustrate how this is in contrast to the Quebec of today. In that vein, late in the year, B'nai Brith Canada made a request of the Montreal Urban Community Transit Corporation (MUCTC) to have the name of the Lionel Groulx metro station changed. The late cleric Groulx had published extensive anti-Semitic and xenophobic writings. The removal of his name from this very public landmark would send a very powerful message to Quebec's ethno-cultural minorities. To date, the MUCTC has refused to consider changing the name, but B'nai Brith will pursue the matter further. Reacting to the approach taken by B'nai Brith, Le Soleil columnist Michel Vastel outrageously ranted in a radio interview that the Jews should apologize to Christians for crucifying Jesus Christ. The charge of Jews as "Christ killers" has sent millions of Jews to their deaths through the ages. This myth has been denounced by Vatican II. B'nai Brith Canada called on all Quebecers to condemn Vastel's remarks. There were some positive signs in 1996 in that mainstream francophone opinion leaders denounced the likes of Villeneuve and the zeal of l'Office de la langue fran‡aise. The Canadian Judicial Council in 1996 recommended that Justice Jean Bienvenue be removed from the bench for his insensitive remarks diminishing the suffering of Jews in the Holocaust. In March, B'nai Brith officials accepted the invitation of Quebec Premier Lucien Bouchard to attend his speech at the Centaur Theatre, yet were disappointed that his government followed up that meeting with Bill 40, an initiative to reincarnate the Commission de la protection de la langue fran‡aise, "Quebec's language police." However, later in the year there was another positive sign as the governing Parti Quebecois officially abandoned its policy of French unilingualism on outdoor commercial signs, which had been deemed a violation of freedom of expression guarantees in both the Canadian and Quebec Charters of Rights and Freedoms. The adoption of Bill 40 was also put on hold. Although these were all seen as steps in the right direction, many are skeptical and believe that these political maneuvers were for political expediency only. Fortunately, despite the heated rhetoric and emotion in 1996, there was no appreciable link to a rise in actual anti- Semitic incidents, compared with previous years. However, there remains an undercurrent of suspicion that if emotions really begin to heat up again, there will be genuine cause for concern by the Jewish community of a renewed wave of anti-Semitic sentiment. Polish Skinheads (Polskas) In the midst of a general decline in skinhead activity in Canada, there has been a rise in activity amongst Polish skinheads or "Polskas in Toronto." It is estimated that there are approximately 80-100 Polskas in the Metro area. Their ages range from fifteen to late thirties. Recruitment by Polish skinheads is aggressive and new Polish immigrants to Canada are heavily targeted. Some young Polish immigrants maybe susceptible to recruitment as they are in a new country and are often seeking cultural, social and linguistic links with other Poles. In addition, new immigrants who arrive from Poland, which is a particularly homogeneous society, maybe overwhelmed by Canada's cultural diversity and may find it difficult to socialize and to relate to other ethnic Canadians. It is reported that the Polish skinheads, who are well organized, generally hang-out in the west part of Toronto in the Bloor and Jane Street area, Roncesvalles Avenue, Lakeshore Boulevard, and the Islington\Kipling area. The Polish skinhead movement in Canada is intricately linked to the flourishing skinhead movement in Poland, where there are a large number of neo-Nazi skinhead bands, such as Konkwista 88, Sztorm 68, and Deportacja. In addition, there are a large number of fan magazines (fanzines) for these bands, such as Falanga Iskra and Odlam Skiny full of anti-Semitic images and lyrics. Many of the Polish language neo-Nazi records and fanzines, such as the skinhead magazine Szcczerbiec, have been imported to Canada. Local Canadian Polish newspapers, as described below, also fuel their anti- Semitism. Recently, there have been approximately ten reported incidents involving Polish skinheads in Toronto. In one incident reported to police, Polish skinheads brazenly attacked several Black individuals in the Toronto Lakeshore area. The three skinheads were charged with assault with a weapon. In another incident, a group of Polish skinheads marched through a schoolyard intimidating other students and teachers. The impetus of the march was a dispute between Polish and Portuguese youth attending that school. The Climate on Campus University and college campuses are often viewed as islands of tranquillity and reflection, of academic debate and civil discourse. However, campuses are also apparently hot beds of hate incidents and anti-Semitism. The League has recorded a proliferation of incidents in the campus environment in the last few years. Outside of the large urban universities, Jewish students feel particularly vulnerable to anti-Semitic incidents because of the lack of Jewish institutions there to assist them. Requests for assistance have come from Victoria, Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Hamilton, Toronto, Kingston, Montreal and Halifax. During 1996, there were a variety of reported incidents of anti-Semitism at campuses across the country, but the types of incidents have varied greatly. In Halifax, a woman at Dalhousie University reported being harassed by a fellow classmate over her decision to convert to Judaism. At both McMaster (Hamilton) and Western (London) Universities in Ontario, there were several reported incidents of anti- Semitic graffiti in the residences. Another persistent problem found on university campuses is anti-Semitism in the form of exaggerated anti-Zionism. At both the University of Toronto and the University of Calgary there were reported incidents of anti-Israel posters that contained anti-Jewish themes. Several universities reported that swastikas were drawn on the posters of Jewish student clubs, and Jewish campus groups received several threatening and harassing phone calls, particularly during Israel week. Dealing with anti-Semitic incidents on campus is problematic. At most universities, Hillel or the Jewish Student Unions are commonly the groups that deal with incidents. Unfortunately, these groups are usually ill equipped to deal with anti-Semitic incidents due to lack of training, not knowing to whom to report such incidents, and because of the usual high turnover of individuals in student governments. The League has prepared and distributed Anti- Semitism on Campus - A Handbook for Student Action to assist groups in countering anti-Semitism constructively and practically. The League has also made Jewish campus groups aware of its hotline (1-800-892-BNAI) to report and seek assistance in handling anti-Semitic incidents. Anti-Semitism and the Ethnic Press Due to the large number of immigrants to Canada and the federal government's policies of promoting multiculturalism, Canada has a large and flourishing ethnic media (radio, TV and print). During 1996, there were several reported incidents of anti-Semitism in various ethnic language newspapers, in particular the Arabic and Polish press. All the reported incidents came from readers who speak the languages in which the papers were written. Complaints were also received from people who had read various issues of The Final Call, the newspaper of the U.S. based Nation of Islam (NOI). Tracking and responding to anti-Semitism in the ethnic press is difficult for two reasons. First, the ethnic press is not as systematically monitored as is the English or French language media because of lack of easy accessibility. Therefore B'nai Brith relies largely on individual complainants calling in to report and to translate. Secondly, those reading or writing for the ethnic press are not always sensitive to anti-Semitism and therefore do not necessarily note instances of anti-Semitism. Generally, there are two types of anti-Semitism found in the ethnic media --deliberate and non-deliberate. The deliberate type is characterized by anti-Jewish stereotypes, anti- Israel rhetoric used to disguise anti-Semitism, Jewish conspiracy theories, and Holocaust denial. An example of this type of article was published in the Polish newspaper Glos Polski in September 1995. The article titled "Do the Jews Rule the World," is about Jewish domination of both capitalism and communism. The article was featured with a cartoon depicting two hooked nose figures wearing pointed hats decoraabout Jewish domination of both capitalism and communism. The article was featured with a cartoon depicting two hooked nose figures wearing pointed hats decorated with Stars of David, dropping humans in a boiling cauldron. Both the article andGazeta in the form of a lengthy letter-to-the- editor. Henryk Dambrowski, the author of the letter, in a short treatise on Jewish economic dominance, writes "every now and then, the Canadian economy is driven artificially, this has been going on for dozens of years now, and Jews are the main engine. They never do anything with their own money, but always with ours or the government's." Several such letters appeared in 1996 on the editorial pages. A frequent complaint about the Arabic media is the use of anti-Israel or anti-Zionist rhetoric as a disguise for anti- Semitism. While criticism of Israel and its policies may be legitimate, the Arabic media often depicts Israelis as Nazis and the policies of Israel as akin to those of Nazi Germany. A poem in the May 15, 1996 edition of Al-Miraat compares Israel's occupation of the security zone in southern Lebanon to German occupation of Nazi conquered Europe. Another troubling source of anti-Semitism in the media has been the Nation of Islam's (NOI) newspaper the Final Call. The paper's intense and negative coverage of Israel and Jewish affairs underscores the NOI and Louis Farrakhan's anti-Semitic agenda. There are few editions that do not have articles discussing Jewish/Israeli related issues. For example, in October 1996 there were several articles critical of Jews and Israel including articles dealing with Israel's "theft of Arab lands;" Jews "arrogant view of themselves" as the (Chosen People); and the refusal by Jewish leaders in the United states to meet with Farrakhan. Overall, the paper creates a negative image of Jews and promotes disharmony and even hostility between Blacks and Jews. The non-deliberate forms of anti-Semitism found in the ethnic media are generally of Jewish stereotyping. For example, there are many occasions when such notions as Jewish power and wealth are propagated as truisms in the ethnic media. Often these stereotypes are used in a seemingly positive manner, but they are nevertheless injurious and false. Addressing anti-Semitism in the ethnic media generally receives mixed responses. On several occasions, certain Polish newspapers have acted defensively and aggressively when accusations of anti-Semitism are made towards them. The League's pointing out anti-Semitic stereotypes and diatribes has even resulted in Jews being accused of harbouring anti- Polish sentiment. For example, Robert Varin, President of the Polish National Union of Canada, stated that "the problem is that we have a lot of evidence that shows a certain segment of the Jewish people have a lot of prejudice against Poles." Particularly troubling about the cases of deliberate anti- Semitism is that many of the newspapers involved receive funding from various levels of government in the form of grants and paid advertising. When complaints are filed with the government departments that support these newspapers, the response is often that they do not have the ability or resources to monitor the ethnic language papers for bias, and it appears that little is done. This is an area of serious concern, lest the fomenting of hatred between minority groups undermines the unity and social cohesion that is the goal of multiculturalism. THE STRUGGLE AGAINST ANTI-SEMITISM AND HATE In addition to responding on a case-by-case basis to reported incidents, it is by using the tools of education and research, legal/legislative interventions, community action and coalition building that the League strives to fulfill its goals of combatting anti-Semitism, racism, and bigotry, and to promote and achieve human rights for all Canadians. Education, Training and Research Education is one of the major tools with which to counteract hate in high schools, colleges and universities. Through its Education and Training Centre, the League provides educational materials for students and teachers, conducts countless professional development workshops in school boards and on campuses, and provides training programs in the public and private sectors. In 1996 the Centre conducted anti-racist education workshops, courses on human rights and workplace harassment, programs on and for the criminal justice system, and public lectures and symposia on Holocaust education. Participants in the League's "Holocaust & Hope Study Tour" to Germany, Poland and Israel assist in anti-racism education in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, New Brunswick, indeed right across the country, including many communities targeted by hate group recruitment. In 1996, the League concluded a research study for the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto on the Nature and Extent of Racism and Hate Activity in Metropolitan Toronto, authored by Dr. Karen Mock, the League's National Director. The results were presented to Metro Council where all the recommendations were accepted unanimously. The study added to the League's earlier investigation of Victim Impact of Racially Motivated Crime, conducted for the Commission on Systemic Racism in the Justice System whose final report was released last year. The Metro study correlated demographic data with incidents of hate and bias crime, utilized our 1- 800 number for direct reporting of incidents (1-800-892- BNAI), and conducted extensive focus group discussions and interviews to determine a more effective model of coordinated action, data collection, service delivery and victim protection against hate motivated crime. The League is in the process of completing several other projects including a comprehensive training manual and program entitled Taking Action Against Hate: Guidelines for Community Action, funded in part by the Trillium Foundation. This project will allow for direct training of a wide variety of community groups to counter anti-Semitism and hate activity. A compendium of Canadian and international hate crimes legislation and case law is also being prepared to assist prosecutors and law enforcement agencies. The League was also a significant contributor to two manuals this year - one by the Metropolitan Toronto Anti-Racism, Access and Equity Centre, and the other by the Ontario Ministry of Education on how to counter hate activity and racism. The League contributed to two kits by the Toronto, and Windsor and Essex County Boards of Education. By conducting and disseminating in-depth primary research, the League provides law enforcement officials, the media, and the public at large with up-to-date accurate information on hate groups, and strategies to counteract their influence. The League continues to monitor hate on the Internet and to propose educational curricula and policy development to regulate, in some way, the transmission of hateful messages. The League is working closely with Ken McVay's Nizkor Project (http://www.nizkor.org) through the "Holocaust and Hope" program. The League and Nizkor have prepared a workbook entitled Hate and the Internet: Selected Readings to assist in workshops on assist in workshops on this topic. The creation of a B'nai web site (http://www.bnaibrith.ca) facilitates the dissemination of information to counter hate and also provides a means of reporting incidents directly to the National Office. Legal/Legislative Initiatives Supreme Court Decisions In 1996, two important Supreme Court decisions strengthened the struggle against anti-Semitism in Canada. In March, the Supreme Court upheld the conviction of James Keegstra. Keegstra was charged 12 years ago under the Criminal Code for "_willfully promoting hatred against an identifiable group" after it was learned that he promoted Holocaust denial and Jewish conspiracy theories to his high school history classes. In 1996, Keegstra attempted to relitigate one aspect of the constitutionality of this section of the Criminal Code of Canada. The unanimous 9-0 decision of the Supreme Court confirmed its earlier decision against Keegstra and sent a strong message that the Canadian anti- hate laws are constitutional. The League had leave to intervene in the Keegstra case. In April, the Supreme Court of Canada upheld unanimously the New Brunswick Human Rights Commission's tribunal decision to keep Malcolm Ross out of the classroom. Ross is a known purveyor of Holocaust denial and other racist material. Canada's highest court sent a clear message that teachers who write or disseminate hate material, regardless of whether they bring it into the classroom or not, are unsuitable role models. Such hate mongers may create a poisoned environment and thus forfeit their right to teach. The League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada also intervened in the Ross case. Somalia Inquiry B'nai Brith Canada continues to intervene, with full standing, in the Somalia Inquiry, the investigation of the murder of a Somali teenager by soldiers of the First Airborne where there had been known members of white supremacist groups and evidence of racist activity. At various times representatives of B'nai Brith questioned witnesses appearing before the Inquiry. B'nai Brith expressed deep reservations concerning the Federal Government's decision to end the Somalia Inquiry before all outstanding issues are resolved, including the infiltration by right-wing groups into the Canadian Armed Forces and the tolerance of systemic and overt racism in the military. These issues were highlighted when a sergeant major testified that he found nothing racist with soldiers having swastika tattoos. Others have testified that confederate flags were deemed acceptable to be hung in soldier's barracks and that there was no racism, even when a Black soldier was walked around on a leash with "KKK" sprayed on his back. The League's research will be filed on this topic with the Commission of Inquiry. Criminal Code Amendments Bill C-41 (Criminal Code amendments including enhanced sentencing for hate/bias crime) was passed in 1995 and enacted into law in September 1996. There is evidence that this amendment is being taken very seriously, as expert witnesses are increasingly being invited to offer testimony during trials and sentencing hearings. B'nai Brith Canada was called upon to provide expert testimony on hate groups and hate crimes in a recent case of two juveniles who spray painted anti- Semitic and Nazi graffiti on the road and outside walls of a house in Sarnia, Ontario. The mischief was deemed hate motivated and the two young offenders received enhanced sentences (18 months probation, two months of house arrest and 100 hours of community work) due to the nature and victim impact of their crimes. Hate on the Internet B'nai Brith has been at the forefront in examining the issue of hate on the Internet and recognizes that this must be done on a number of fronts, including legal, legislative and educational. B'nai Brith strongly supports legal efforts to combat hate on the Internet and has proposed that the Government of Canada examine the adequacy of the Criminal Code and related statues to address the dissemination of hate propaganda and, where necessary, seek to amend the Criminal Code to rectify jurisdictional or other impediments to the successful prosecution of criminal activity via the Internet. While acknowledging the complexity of jurisdictional issues related to the Internet, the League maintains that the Internet is no different than other forms of communication and that those disseminating hate must be prosecuted. To this end, B'nai Brith Canada has applied to be granted interested party status in the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal examining Ernst Zundel's web site. The case was based on a complaint filed against Zundel by Sabina Citron and the Toronto Mayor`s Committee on Community and Race Relations regarding Zundel`s dissemination of hate material and Holocaust denial via the Internet. The CHRC has ordered a tribunal to adjudicate the complaint. The hearings will likely begin in the spring of 1997, and will undoubtedly be precedent setting in dealing with the complex legal jurisdictional issues related to the Internet. (To view examples of hate on the internet, visit Hatewatch at http://www.hatewatch.org) And Still Zundel The League has also requested leave to intervene in another case against Zundel which involves an appeal by the Federal government of a Federal Court decision quashing a finding by the Security Intelligence Review Committee (SIRC) that Zundel constituted a security threat to Canada. Zundel won the decision on the grounds of reasonable apprehension of bias by SIRC who had mentioned Zundel in their investigation of the Heritage Front and "Grant Bristow Affair." If the government wins the appeal, the SIRC finding will effectively make citizenship for Zundel impossible and will ease any future attempts by the government to deport Zundel. Telephonic Hate The League has also requested leave to intervene in another case which is also likely to have significant implications for the codification of international standards regarding the transmission of hate speech via telecommunications. The Canadian Liberty Net operates a telephone line through which it disseminates hate messages. In 1992, the Federal Court of Canada imposed a temporary restraining order preventing the Canadian Liberty Net from offering the recorded messages, which originated in Vancouver, pending the outcome of a human rights tribunal to determine the permanent status ofinternational standards regarding the transmission of hate speech via telecommunications. The Canadian Liberty Net operates a telephone line through which it disseminates hate messages. In 1992, the Federal Court of Canada imposed a temporary restraining order preventing the Canadian Liberty Net from offering the recorded messages, which originated in Vancouver, pending the outcome of a human rights tribunal to determine the permanent status of the phone messages. The organization subsequently began to offer its messages from a telephone number in Washington State. As a result, the Federal Court imposed an interlocutory injunction, ordering the Liberty Net to Community Partnerships Intercultural Dialogue In the wake of rising tensions between minority groups, and scapegoating of one by another it is important for communities to work together to promote harmony and social cohesion. In March a very successful Black/Jewish Relations program was conducted in Quebec by the League in collaboration with the Quebec Black Coalition. Issues they identified have led to a joint employment project for minority youth. In Ontario increased outreach to the Black community followed Farrakhan's visit to Toronto and efforts are being made to strengthen the existing Black/Jewish dialogue program. The Women's Interfaith Dialogue Program continues to break down myths and stereotypes among different faith communities and racial groups. Finding common experiences and common causes forges better relations between Christians, Muslims and Jews. Joint Community Action The League for Human Rights is active in promoting grassroots responses to anti-Semitism. The case of Paul Fromm, a Peel Board of Education teacher and Director of the Canadian Association for Free Expression, is a case in point. In late 1996, the League initiated a joint community program with a local synagogue in the Peel Region, the Halton/Peel B'nai Brith Lodge and the local multicultural association to have Fromm removed from the Peel Board of Education for violating terms of his contract prohibiting him from engaging in activities contrary to the Board's multicultural and multi-ethnic policies. The League provided videotape and printed evidence that Fromm continued his activities despite a 1993 Ministry of Education finding and Board warning. In addition, the League, the Halton Peel lodge and a local Rabbi briefed a coalition of area clergy, who subsequently spoke out on the issue. The League also presented its evidence formally to the Peel Board. As a result of this grassroots initiative, the Peel Board gave notice to Fromm that the Board of Trustees would terminate his contract. Fromm retained Victoria lawyer Doug Christie, who made numerous in camera representations to the Board. As the Audit went to press, the League was informed that the Board of Trustees accepted the recommendation that Fromm's teaching contract be terminated. Joint community action is also underway in Winnipeg. In 1996, in conjunction with the annual Media Human Rights Awards, the League held a symposium for representatives from community, education, government and police entitled "Community Action Against Racism and Hate - Protection, Prevention and Partnerships." A follow-up symposium will be held in Winnipeg in the coming year. The League was also invited to contribute to similar conferences held by other organizations. In 1996, we participated in hate crimes seminars and symposia in Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Halton Region, Durham Region, Ottawa, Toronto, and Halifax. Inter-Jurisdictional Cooperation In late June, it came to the attention of the League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada that a new version of The Turner Diaries by William Pierce, published by Barricade books in the U.S., had slipped into Canada and was to be distributed by a large book company into mainstream bookstores. This book is one of the most violent, racist and anti-Semitic books in print. The League contacted the company and informed them of the nature of the book and the possibilities of prosecution. The book company agreed to voluntarily stop distribution. The League contacted Revenue Canada for verification that this latest version of The Turner Diaries would be placed on the list of prohibited materials as hate propaganda as earlier editions had been. B'nai Brith conducted numerous consultations with various government agencies, Metro Toronto's Hate Crimes unit, and community human rights groups, as well as with the Independent Book Sellers Association. This collaboration and the legal scrutiny and assessment of the book on the part of Revenue Canada culminated in the decision to again prohibit the importation and distribution of this book in Canada. This case, as many others described above, illustrates once again the importance of our three pronged approach in the struggle against anti-Semitism and hate: Protection, Prevention, and Partnerships RECENT PUBLICATIONS ON ANTI-SEMITISM AND HATE B'nai Brith Canada. Hate Propaganda and Hate Crime - Are You a Victim? Toronto: League for Human Rights, 1996. ----------. Is Your Child a Target? Guidelines for Parents and Teachers on the Dangers of Hate Group Recruitment in Canada. Toronto: League for Human Rights, 1996. ----------. Anti-Semitism on Campus: A Handbook for Student Action. Toronto: League for Human Rights of B'nai Brith Canada, 1993. Braun, Aurel and Scheinberg, Stephen, (eds.). The Extreme Right: Freedom and Security at Risk. Boulder. Co.: Westview Press, 1997. Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police. Hate Crimes in Canada: In Your Back Yard. Ottawa: Canadian Association of Police Chiefs, 1996. Farber, Bernie. From Marches to Modems: A Report on Organized Hate in Metropolitan Toronto. Toronto: Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, (In Press). Metropolitan Toronto Anti-Racism, Access and Equity Centre. Hate: Communities Can Respond. Toronto: Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, 1996. Mock, Karen R. Nature and Extent of Racism and Hate Activity in Metropolitan Toronto. Toronto: Anti-Racism, Access and Equity Centre, Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, 1996. -------------. Focus on Human Rights. Canadian Social Studies. Vol. 30-31, 1995-96 -------------. "Amending and Defending Our Codes and Commissions" -------------. "Presenting the other Side" -------------. "On Power" -------------. "Victims, Perpetrators, Bystanders, Activists - Who are They? Who are You?" -------------. "25 Years of Multiculturalism: Past, Present and Future" -------------. "Freedom of Expression vs. Political Correctness - Where do you Draw the Line?" -------------. "Combatting Racism and Hate in Canada Today: Lessons of the Holocaust" -------------. "The Somalia Inquiry - What does it have to do with Us?" Ontario Ministry of Education. Organized Hate Groups and Your School: What Every Educator Needs to Know. Toronto: Ontario Government, (In Press).
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