The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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The close relationship between the SA and the Wehrmacht is

                                                  [Page 164]
shown throughout the issues of "Der SA-Mann", which contain
a number of articles on military training written by
Wehrmacht Officers. The same relationship is shown in many
photographs. For example, in the issue of 1 May 1937, at
page 4, there is a picture of a Wehrmacht formation drawn up
in front of an SA building with SA officers and men in the
background. The picture is entitled --

     "Day after day the closed formations of the Wehrmacht
     march in Wurzburg to the subscription places of the SA
     for thanksgiving to the nation in order to announce its
     close relation with the SA, and to express thanks to
     the Fuehrer for making the Reich capable of defense."

Page 2 of the issue of 27 January 1939, contains a
photograph of the SA Chief of Staff, Lutze, addressing a
group of SA men. The photograph bears the caption, "We will
be the bridge between the Party and the Wehrmacht." Page 3
of the issue of 3 February 1939, reproduces a photograph of
General von Brauchitsch and Chief of Staff Lutze reviewing
an SA unit.

The close cooperation between the Wehrmacht and the SA, and
the significance of the SA military training program is
shown by the fact that service in the SA was considered as
military service under the Conscription Law of 1935. The
Organization Book of the Party declared that --

     "Equally significant is a suitable education and
     training which the SA has accomplished within the
     yearly classes, and which have satisfied their arms
     obligation." (3220-PS)

And an article in "Das Archiv" declared --

     "It was announced that conscripted SA men and Hitler
     Youths can fulfill their military conscription in the
     SA Regiment Feldherrnhalle whose Commander is General
     Field Marshall SA Obergruppenfuehrer Goering. The
     Regiment for the first time was employed as Regiment of
     the Luftwaffe in the occupation of the Sudetenland
     under its Fuehrer and Regimental Commander SA
     Gruppenfuehrer Reimann." (3214-PS)

There was never any misunderstanding among SA men as to the
reasons which lay behind their military training program.
They were preparing for war and knew it. The purpose of the
so-called "Sports Program" was announced time after time in
articles in "Der SA-Mann." For example, the introduction to
an article entitled, "The War of Tomorrow," which appeared
in the issue of 6 July 1937, at page 12, declared:

                                                  [Page 165]
     "By decree of the Fuehrer of 18 March 1937, the SA
     Sport Badge was declared as a means for the aggressive
     training of the body, for the fostering of a military
     spirit, for the retaining of military efficiency and
     thereby as a basis for German military-power.***
     "*** In the following article an attempt is made to
     occupy every SA Fuehrer, who does not have the
     opportunity due to their profession or many-sided SA
     services, with questions concerning military policy and
     modern war direction, to give him an overall view of
     facts, teachings, opinions and beliefs which today are
     not without decisive influence upon the military
     policy, upon the character of the coming war and upon
     the modern national defense."

D. Participation of the SA in Warfare.

It would be natural in view of the above quotation, to
expect the SA to have been used as a striking force in the
first steps of he aggressive warfare launched by Germany,
and as a basis for so-called Commando Groups. Such was the
case. SA units were among the first of the Nazi military
machine to invade Austria in the spring of 1938. This fact
was proudly announced in an article appearing in "Der SA-
Mann" for 19 March 1938, at p. 10 entitled, "We were the
First!" Similarly, the SA participated in the occupation of
the Sudetenland (3214-PS). It was announced that conscripted
SA men and Hitler Youths could fulfill their military
conscription duty in the SA Regiment Feldherrnhalle,
commanded by General Field Marshall SA Obergruppenfuehrer
Goering. The regiment was employed for the first time as
Regiment of the Luftwaffe in the occupation of the
Sudetenland, under its Fuehrer and Regimental commander SA
Gruppenfuehrer Reimann.

SA participation in the occupation of the Sudetenland is
also shown by an affidavit of Gottlob Berger, a former
officer in the SS who was assigned to the Sudeten-German
Free Corps (3036-PS). Berger declares --

     *** 1 In the fall of 1938 I held the rank and title of
     Oberfuehrer in the SS. In mid-September I was assigned
     as SS Liaison Officer with Konrad Henlein's Sudeten
     German Free Corps at their headquarters in the castle
     at Dondorf outside Bayreuth. In this position I was
     responsible for all liaison between the Reichsfuehrer
     SS Himmler and Henlein and, in particular, I was
     delegated to select from the Sudeten Germans those who
     appeared to be eli-
                                                  [Page 166]
     gible for membership in the SS or VT ( Verfuegungs
     Truppe). In addition to myself, Liaison Officers
     stationed with Henlein included an Obergruppenfuehrer
     from the NSKK, whose name I have forgotten, and
     Obergruppenfuehrer Max Juettner, from the SA. In
     addition, Admiral Canaris, who was head of the OKW
     Abwehr, appeared at Dondorf nearly every two days and
     conferred with Henlein.
     "2. In the course of my official duties at Henlein's
     Headquarters I became familiar with the composition and
     activities of the Free Corps. Three groups were being
     formed under Henlein's direction: One in the Eisenstein
     area, Bavaria, one in the Bayreuth area; one in the
     Dresden area, and possibly a fourth group in Silesia.
     These groups were supposedly composed of refugees from
     the Sudetenland who had crossed the border into
     Germany, but they actually contained Germans with
     previous service in the SA and NSKK [Nazi Motor Corps]
     as well. These Germans formed the skeleton of the Free
     Corps. On paper the Free Corps had a strength of 40,000
     men. Part of the equipment furnished to Henlein, mostly
     haversacks, cooking utensils and blankets, were
     supplied by the SA." (3036-PS)

The adaptability of the SA to whatever purpose was required
of it is demonstrated by its activities subsequent to the
outbreak of the war. During the war the SA continued to
carry out its military training program, but it also engaged
in various other functions:

     "The General of the SA, Wilhelm Schepmann, gave further
     orders to increase the employment of the SA in the
     homeland war territories because of the requirements of
     total war employment. This was done in numerous
     business conferences with Fuehrers of the SA-Divisions.
     "As a result of these conferences, as well as of
     measures al ready carried out earlier for the
     totalization of the war employment, the SA now has
     placed 86 per cent of its main professional Fuehrer
     Corps at disposal at the Front even though the war
     missions of the SA have increased in the fields of pre-
     military training, the SA penetration into new
     territorial parts of the Reich, the air war employment,
     the State and national guard etc., during war time.
     "The SA as a whole has given at present an even 70 of
     its nearly million members to the Wehrmacht." (3219-PS)
The SA even extended its activities into Poland:

     "By command of the General of the SA, the 'SA-Unit
     General Government' was established, the command of
                                                  [Page 167]
     was taken over by Governor-General SA
     Obergruppenfuehrer Dr. Frank." (3216-PS)

An affidavit of Walter Schellenberg, bureau chief in the
RSHA, reads as follows:

     *** From the beginning of 1944 on the SA also
     participated in many of the functions which had
     previously been entrusted only to the SS, SIPO and
     Army, for instance the guarding of concentration camps,
     the guarding of prisoner of war camps, the supervision
     over forced laborers in Germany and occupied areas.
     This cooperation of the SA was planned and arranged for
     by high officials in Berlin as early as the middle of
     1943 ***." (3232PS)

E. Special Responsibility of Goering for the SA Program.

Hermann Goering participated in the conspiracy in his
capacity as an SA member and leader. In 1923, Goering became
Commander of the entire SA. A few months later Goering
participated in the so-called Munich Putsch. SA troops
participated with him in this action.

Goering's intention to employ the SA as a terroristic force
to destroy political opponents is shown by a speech made by
him on 3 March 1933, at a Nazi demonstration in Frankfurt Am
Main (1856-PS). Goering spoke as follows:

     "Certainly, I shall use the power of the State and the
     police to the utmost, my dear Communists ! So you won't
     draw any false conclusions by the struggle to the death
     in which my fist will grasp your necks, I shall lead
     with those down there. Those are the Brown Shirts."

The importance of the SA under Goering in the early stages
of the Nazi movement is shown by a letter written to Goering
by Hitler (3259-PS):

     "My dear Goering:
     "When in November 1923 the Party tried for the first
     time to conquer the power of the State, you as
     Commander of the SA created within an extraordinarily
     short time that instrument with which could bear that
     struggle. Highest necessity had forced us to act, but a
     wise providence at that time denied the success. After
     receiving a grave wound you again entered the ranks as
     soon as circumstances permitted as my most loyal
     comrade in the battle for power. You contributed
     essentially to creating the basis for the 30th of
     January. Therefore, at the end of a year of the
     National Socialist Revolution. I desire to thank you
                                                  [Page 168]
      my dear Party Comrade Goering, for the great values
     which you have for the National Socialist Revolution
     and consequently for the German people.
           "In cordial friendship and grateful appreciation.
                               "(s) Adolf Hitler!" (3259-PS)

Although Goering did not retain command of the SA, he at all
times maintained a close affiliation with the organization.
This is shown by the photographs of Goering participating in
SA activities which have been mentioned previously. In 1937,
Goering became Commander of the Feldherrnhalle Regiment of
the SA This was the Regiment which was employed in the
occupation of the Sudetenland. (3214-PS)

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