The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Holocaust Denial Today

Manuel Prutschi

The  story is told of the Jew who, on being captured by  the
Nazis, was dealt eighty brutal blows by his captors and  yet
managed to live to tell the tale. This survivor carried with
him  not only the memory and the pain of those eighty blows,
and  what  he and his people underwent during the Holocaust,
but  also the fear that the suffering of the Jews would  not
be  believed because the inhumanity that they underwent  was
unfathomable. To him that would constitute the  eighty-first

The  Nazis,  while committing mass murder, were covering  up
their  tracks so that the Jewish story in fact would not  be
believed,  and  they would get away with their  crime.  They
carried out their program in secrecy. They developed a whole
vocabulary to mask genocide in euphemism. Transportation  to
death  was  referred  to  as  emigration,  repatriation,  or
resettlement in the east. Murder of Jews was referred to  as
special treatment or special action. The annihilation of the
Jewish  people  came to be known as the final solution.  The
disappearance of the Jews off the face of the European earth
was  to  be  made,  for future generations,  as  puzzling  a
mystery as the disappearance of the dinosaurs.

The  final  solution did not wholly succeed. The Nazis  lost
the  war and the story of the Holocaust has very much gotten
out.  But the eighty-first blow has been struck nonetheless,
in  a  manner  more  vicious than the  survivor  could  have
anticipated.  Rather  than the survivor's  story  not  being
believed    because    the   level   of    inhumanity    was
incomprehensible,  the story is actually being  denied.  And
there is an international movement engaged in that denial.

Holocaust deniers contend that for mass murder to have taken
place  there  had to be a 'super weapon.' That super  weapon
was  the  gas  chamber. They proceed to assert  that  not  a
single  human  being  was  gassed to  death  by  the  Nazis.
Gassing, they argue, was purely used for disinfection.  Only
thousands of Jews died during the Second World War and these
perished  as  the unfortunate victims of the  exigencies  of
war,  mainly at the end of the conflict. There was no policy
of genocide.

Even  in  its broad strokes Holocaust denial is deliberately
misleading.  It focuses exclusively on gassing as  the  sole
means  of murdering Jews, when there were a series of  other
methods.  The  einsatzgruppen, or mobile SS killing  squads,
followed  the  German  army as it  advanced  eastwards,  and
engaged  in mass shootings which claimed the lives  of  well
over  one  million people. The deniers do not speak  of  the
crowding  of  Jews  into ghettos or of  the  labour  in  the
concentration  camps,  and  the deaths  that  resulted  from
starvation, disease, and brutality.

The deniers, in their questioning of gassing, deal only with
Auschwitz,  which  was  both a  slave  labour  camp  and  an
extermination  camp. Nothing is said of the other  factories
of death: Chelmno, Sobibor, Treblinka, Belzec, and Majdanek.
These  were  small  points on the map -  non-descript,  tiny
villages  -to  which trains took hundreds  of  thousands  of
Jews, and returned empty. The deniers are silent on the  use
of  gas  vans.  And they do not speak at  all  of  the  Nazi
euthanasia  program  against their own "Aryans"  in  Germany
itself.   Tens  of  thousands  described  as   mentally   or
physically infirm by the Nazis were gassed to death, setting
the  precedent  for the use of gas against  the  Jews  in  a
massive way during the Holocaust.

The  Holocaust  deniers are individuals with an  idee  fixe.
They  reject  all evidence which undermines their  so-called
thesis.   Documents  and  photographs  are  all   forgeries.
Survivor  eyewitnesses are all victims of mass delusion  and
indoctrination.  Confessions  of  Nazi  war  criminals   are
invalid  because they were all extracted by torture or  were
the result of plea bargaining. The scholar Nadine Fresco has
looked  at  the work of the Holocaust deniers,  and  written
that  in  their  "research the only  ethic  is  suspicion...
distrust  is the only certitude." This does not make  for  a
workable, honest methodology of history.

In  history you do not begin by attaching yourself to a wild
theory  and then reject anything that flies in the  face  of
it. Yet the Holocaust deniers want to portray themselves  as
disinterested  truth  seekers, real historical  researchers.
That   is  why  they  choose  to  refer  to  themselves   as
"historical revisionists."

The  revision  of  history  is a legitimate  pursuit.  Every
generation  takes  a  new look at its past  and  revises  it
somewhat  in  the  light of new evidence, new  perspectives.
When  engaging  in  such  reinterpretation,  historians  ask
themselves what happened, how it happened, why it  happened.
They do not deny the events themselves.

Historians,  for  example, when looking at the  dropping  of
atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, might ask themselves
why  it  was necessary; how was the decision made; could  it
have  been  avoided; could the Japanese surrender have  been
obtained in some other way. No historian suggests that bombs
were  not dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; that the  whole
thing   was   an  invention  by  the  Japanese  to   extract
reparations  and to get the United States to  rebuild  their
country's  economy;  that  the survivors  of  those  nuclear
holocausts are simply suffering from delusion.

The  Holocaust deniers, in contrast, when they approach  the
Holocaust flatly say there was none. It was an invention  by
Jews  or Zionists - and they use these terms interchangeably
-  to  gain reparations from Germany for themselves and  for
the  State  of Israel. Holocaust deniers are not  historians
but  evil magicians. In the claims of the Holocaust deniers,
the  victims  of  the  genocide  are  made  into  liars  and
criminals, perpetrators as they are of the greatest fraud in
history  while  the  Nazis - the very  perpetrators  of  the
genocide  - emerge as victims. Since there was no  crime  of
genocide there can be no Nazi war criminals. Nazis in effect
are  falsely  accused. The criminals are  innocent  and  the
innocents are criminal.

This  is  a classic inversion of images which George  Orwell
warned  us about in his book 1984. Orwell wrote the book  in
1948, but since it was supposed to presage a future society,
for  the  title he simply inverted the order of  the  date's
numbers and he called it 1984. In his book Orwell dealt with
the  bastardization  of language and doublespeak.  Black  is
white. Peace is war. Truth is false. Falsehood is truth.

With  Holocaust  denial,  the world  foreseen  in  1984  has
arrived. Holocaust deniers are out to mesmerize, to  confuse
and  to dislocate. They are out to make people unsure  about
definitions, to unhinge them from their certainties, to make
them lose sight of right and wrong. In this way they aim  to
achieve  their ultimate purpose, which is the unabashed  and
unqualified rehabilitation of the Third Reich. If there  was
never  any  crime  of mass murder then  there  are  no  mass
murderers.  Nazism and the Third Reich are  whitewashed  and
made once again respectable and, what is most important  for
the neo-Nazis, attractive.

The  Holocaust  made  Nazism into a  tainted  product,  even
causing  many  who  might  otherwise  be  attracted  to  its
doctrines,  to  shy away from it. If Nazism  was  to  remain
viable  as  an  ideology, in light of the  Holocaust,  logic
absolutely  demanded that, as neo-Nazism, it deny  that  the
Holocaust  ever happened. A movement whose raison d'etre  is
to  hate and to promote the hatred of Jews, needs to  attack
anything which elicits sympathy for Jews. A movement bent on
marketing  the  thesis that there is a Jewish conspiracy  to
conquer the world, must deny that there was a conspiracy  on
almost  a  global  scale of commission,  collaboration,  and
omission,  to  destroy the Jewish people. Holocaust  deniers
want to bring back Nazism and make it today and tomorrow the
powerful political force that it was yesterday.

The   Nazis,  to  create  the  atmosphere  which  made   the
delegitimization,  the  persecution  and,  ultimately,   the
annihilation  of  the  Jewish people possible,  adopted  and
disseminated  the notion of a Jewish conspiracy  to  control
the   world.   The   basic  document  which   outlined   and
encapsulated  the conspiracy theory for the Nazis,  was  the
infamous Czarist Secret Police forgery, The Protocols of the
Elders of Zion

That  is why the historian Norman Cohn, in a seminal  study,
has  rightly  and  so  aptly described the  Protocols  as  a
"warrant  for  genocide". In the historian's unchallengeable
view, the myth of a Jewish world-conspiracy led directly  to
the Holocaust.

Holocaust  denial  is but a new layer, superimposed  on  the
traditional   world  Jewish  conspiracy  theory.   It   also
elaborates   and   expands  upon  the  theory   because   it
incorporates  another dimension drawn from the cosmology  of
antisemitism  - of the Jew as a cheat and extortionist.  The
theory clearly implies that only the Jews, expert cheats and
conspirators that they are, successfully could pull off this
conspiracy of conspiracies, this scam to beat all scams -  a
hoax not merely global but truly universal in its scope.

Ernst  Zundel is the prime practitioner of Holocaust  denial
in  Canada  In the early 1980's he gave Canada  the  dubious
distinction  of  being  the principal source  for  Holocaust
denial and neo-Nazi material being exported to West Germany.
Zundel,  in  his  publications and activities,  forthrightly
purveyed  Nazi  memorabilia,  advanced  Nazi  doctrine,  and
admired   Nazi  personalities.  He  sold  military   SS-like
paraphernalia, glorified Aryan man, and was the co-author of
the panegyric work, The Hitler We Loved and Why.

In 1985, in Toronto, Zundel was charged under Section 177 of
the Criminal Code which makes it a
crime to disseminate false information, known to be false by
the disseminator, and likely to cause injury
or  mischief  to  the public interest. In  the  Zundel  case
"public interest" was particularized by the Crown
to mean social and racial tolerance.

The criminal charges brought against Zundel arose out of his
publication and dissemination of two pamphlets.  One  was  a
thirty-two-page  pamphlet entitled "Did Six  Million  Really
Die?"  which  branded the Holocaust a hoax.  It  was  widely
distributed  throughout Canada, especially  to  politicians,
media people, and librarians. The second one was a four-page
letter entitled  "The West, War and Islam!". It advanced the
notion of a conspiracy by Zionists, bankers, communists  and
Freemasons  to control the world. It was mailed  to  twelve-
hundred specific addresses, in the Middle East.

Zundel was acquitted on the charge connected with "The West,
War and Islam". Since precious little time was spent on this
charge  at  trial,  one  can only speculate  that  the  jury
thought it unimportant and, also, possibly reasoned that the
letter could not have done much harm in Canada since it  was
mailed  out of the country. On the other hand, the jury  did
convict  on  the key Holocaust denial charge and Zundel  was
sentenced to a jail term. Zundel appealed the conviction. On
legal  technicalities, a re-trial was  ordered.  The  second
trial  was  held  in  1988 and a jury, again,  found  Zundel
guilty,  and a jail term was imposed. The case is  now  once
more under appeal.

Two  other  notorious  Canadian antisemites  who  have  been
identified  with  Holocaust denial are  James  Keegstra  and
Malcolm  Ross. Keegstra, for many years, taught high  school
in  the  small  town of Eckville, Alberta while  Ross  is  a
teacher in the Moncton, New Brunswick area.

For Keegstra and Ross Holocaust denial is not as central  to
their world view as it is to Zundel's, but it is nonetheless
a direct outgrowth of it. Both these men consider themselves
religious Christians and have imbibed deeply at the well  of
Christian  antisemitism. They can rightly  be  described  as
theologians  of hate." To them Jews are evil, satanic  world
conspirators out to wreck western Christian civilization. Of
course  this view of a world Jewish conspiracy, when rid  of
its   religious  dimension,  is  precisely  what  the  Nazis

Outside  of Canada, Europe and the United States  yield  the
most significant examples of Holocaust deniers.

The  intellectual father of the movement was  the  Frenchman
Paul Rassinier, who died in 1967. Rassinier  was a bundle of
contradictions.  He  was a socialist, an  anarchist,  and  a
communist.  His ideological, political background  was  from
the  left, not from the right as one might expect. He was  a
politician,  hero,  and a pacifist. He was  a  concentration
camp   survivor,  having  spent  two  years  at   Dora   and

Rassinier,  in  his personal concentration camp  experience,
found  that the everyday suffering inflicted on the  inmates
was  done primarily by the kappos. These were individuals  -
themselves drawn from the camp population - placed on top of
their  fellows,  as  a way of shielding  the  SS  and  other
authorities  from  the direct anger  or  the  wrath  of  the
inmates.  Rassinier, in a bizarre mental odyssey, went  from
blaming  the  kappos, through absolving  the  Nazis  of  any
responsibility,  to blaming the victims  for  inventing  the
whole thing.

Rassinier's  mantle  was  inherited  by  another  Frenchman,
Robert  Faurisson who, in some ways, today is the movement's
`elder  statesman.' He has a doctorate from the Sorbonne  in
literary textual criticism. He was a professor of literature
at  the  University of Lyons II but has been suspended  from
teaching  since  1979. He has been found  guilty  of  libel,
racial  defamation  and  incitement to  racial  hatred,  and
failure  properly  to  discharge his responsibilities  as  a
historian, both in his approach to evidence and testimony as
well  as in his research methods. He was a star witness  for
Zundel at both his trials.

Another Holocaust denier in France of more recent prominence
is Henri Roques, a sixty-five-year-old retired, agricultural
engineer.  He  produced a long thesis  which  was  Holocaust
denial  through-and-through,  and  shopped  around   for   a
university  to  grant  him  a  doctorate.  Rejected  by  the
universities  of  Paris and the Sorbonne, among  others,  he
finally  hit  pay  dirt  at  the University  of  Nantes.  An
academic panel of three granted the thesis a Ph.D. and  gave
it  top  grades. The supervisor, Jean-Claude Riviere,  is  a
specialist in the medieval history of Provence. Sixty Nantes
professors  protested.  After  the  Ministry  of   Education
investigated, the doctorate was withdrawn in July, 1986  and
the thesis supervisor was suspended.

Faurisson and Roques have their younger disciples. In  April
of  1987,  on  the eve of the trial of Klaus Barbie,  fliers
appeared in Lyons on behalf of what alleged itself to  be  a
group  of  high  school  students  from  Lyons,  Nancy,  and
Strasbourg. They claimed that the only gassing the Nazis had
engaged  in  was for purposes of disinfection.  'Only  fleas
were gassed in the camps,' the posters read.

In  Switzerland there is Mariette Paschoud, a teacher  at  a
high  school  in  Lausanne.  In  August  1986,  at  a  press
conference  in  Paris, she denied that there  had  been  any
gassing  of  Jews  in the Second World  War.  She  has  been
stripped  of  her  history course but she still  remains  in
school teaching French. Students went on a city-wide protest
feeling that the authorities had been over-lenient.

In  Germany there is the case of Wilhelm Staeglich, formerly
a  Hambourg  judge with a doctorate from the  University  of
Goettingen. In 1981 he published The Auschwitz Myth. He  was
stripped  of his doctorate, fined ten percent of the  salary
he  had received as a judge since 1981, and authorities have
banned his book.

Sweden  provided the example of Ditlieb Felderer. In  April,
1983  he was convicted of hatemongering and underwent court-
ordered psychiatric treatment. It seemed to have been of  no
avail, since he also twice testified in Zundel's defence.

In  England  there is the case of Richard Hawood or  Richard
Verrall. He was the editor of the neo-Nazi National  Front's
magazine  Spearhead.  He  authored  the  pamphlet  "Did  Six
Million Really Die?", for whose publication and distribution
in  Canada Zundel has been twice convicted under the  "false
news"  section of the Criminal Code. It was first  published
in 1974 by "Historical Review Press" which was owned by R.F.
Beauclair.  Beauclair  is  an  ex  chairman  of  the  Racial
Preservation  Society, which subsequently  merged  with  the
National Front.

More notorious than Harwood/Verrall however is David Irving.
He   is   an   ultra-nationalist  Englishman  with   fascist
sympathies. He is a prolific writer of popular,  as  opposed
to scholarly, historical works -  dozens of them.

In  _The  Destruction of Dresden_, Irving declared that  the
Allies  were  as  bad  as the Nazis  in  the  commission  of
atrocities  against civilians. In _Hitler's War_  he  argued
that  Hitler  neither ordered nor knew about the destruction
of  the  Jews.  He in fact offered a reward of  one-thousand
pounds to anyone who could produce a written Hitler order to
annihilate the Jews. Until recently David Irving, in what he
wrote  or  said  publicly, had gingerly straddled  the  line
between  legitimacy and illegitimacy. However he  never  has
been  coy  about  the  company  he  kept.  He  has  attended
conferences   at   the  Holocaust  denying   Institute   for
Historical  Review, for instance. At one  convention  he  is
quoted  as proclaiming that "Hitler was probably the biggest
friend  the Jews had in the Third Reich, certainly at  least
when the war broke out."

Irving,  at  long last, chose to come out of  the  Holocaust
denial  closet  at the second Zundel trial. In  the  closing
moments of the case for the defence he was brought out as  a
"surprise"  witness and he openly declared himself  for  the
Holocaust denier that he really is.

Under vigorous cross-examination Irving was confronted  with
what  he himself had written ten years earlier in his  book,
_Hitler's  War_.  In  that  work Irving  did  not  deny  the
Holocaust  - far from it. In fact he outlined in detail  its
extent  and  its  horrors, ascribing it to  Heinrich  Himler
[sic]  and  his subordinates but insisting that  Hitler  was
ignorant  of  it. Repeatedly, when faced by the  Crown  with
passages  from that book which asserted the reality  of  the
Holocaust,  Irving monotonously countered that "He  believed
then  but  he  no longer believed now." When  he  was  asked
whether  he had done any research in the last ten  years  in
this  field  which led him to change his mind,  he  candidly
admitted  that he had not. When pressed further, as evidence
for his turnaround, he cited the Leuchter "report".

Fred  Leuchter  is  a  self-confessed expert  in  "execution
hardware" whom Ernst Zundel found in the United States,  and
recruited  to go to Auschwitz for him to collect samples  of
the  soil and off the walls of the gas chambers. Zundel  and
Leuchter  had this soil "analyzed" and then, in a  "report",
presented "findings" which suggested no evidence for gassing
at Auschwitz. Irving would have seen this worthless "report"
no  earlier than forty-eight to twenty-four hours before  he
took  the  stand.  Yet  he pointed to it  as  a  significant
influence in changing his mind away from what he had written
about the Holocaust ten years earlier, in _Hitler's War_. If
Irving  had any credibility as a historian, the a-historical
and  indeed anti-historical way in which he dealt  with  the
facts of the Holocaust while testifying, under oath, in  the
Zundel trial reduced his credibility to zero.

Irving  frequently  visits  Canada  on  cross-country  tours
sponsored by various radical right groups.

In  the  United  States there is the  case  of  Harry  Elmer
Barnes. He died in 1968 at the age of 79. He was responsible
for translating Rassinier into English.

Barnes   was  once  a  respectable  historian.  He  was   an
isolationist.  He felt that the United States,  contrary  to
its interests, was led into two disastrous world wars. So he
started to see a conspiracy which had maneuvered his country
into  these conflicts. During the First World War there were
a  series of propaganda stories that had been circulated  by
the allies to taint Germany. Subsequent investigation proved
a  number  of  these  atrocity stories had  been  false.  To
Barnes, World War II atrocities would once be shown to  have
been as false as World War I propaganda. Paul L Berman, in a
1981  Village  Voice article on Holocaust denial,  which  is
probably  still the best single journalistic  piece  on  the
subject, having studied Barnes, contends that in the  United
States,  Holocaust denial intellectually has  its  roots  in
American  isolationism with its revisionism of World  War  I
and its suspicion of "western militarism".

Arthur R. Butz is another American. He is the author of what
has  become  one  of  the  classic texts  of  the  Holocaust
deniers:  The  Hoax of the Twentieth Century,  published  in
1977. He is still a professor of Electrical Engineering  and
Computer Science at Northwestern University.

The  world nerve centre of Holocaust denial is the Institute
for  Historical  Review, in Torrance, California   It  holds
conferences which bring Holocaust deniers together from  all
across the world. It issues a journal called `The Journal of
Historical  Review'  which, on  the  surface,  has  all  the
appearance of a legitimate research periodical.

Willis  Carto, of the unabashedly antisemitic Liberty Lobby,
founded  the Institute in 1979, after the N.B.C.  television
series  on  the  Holocaust. The tremendous impact  that  the
series  had, not only in North America but indeed in a  good
part  of the world, spurred Holocaust deniers to counter  it
with  increased activism. The series is what brought  Zundel
out  of  the  shadows  and,  in 1979,  brought  him  to  the
Institute's   founding   convention.   At   the   convention
Faurisson, not sufficiently confident of his English,  asked
Zundel  to  read  his  paper for him. This  was  to  be  the
beginning of an enduring association.

The  Institute for Historical Review had David  McCalden  as
its  first  Director. McCalden hails from Northern  Ireland,
lived  in Britain for a number of years, and now resides  in
the United States.

In  Britain,  McCalden,  as  an outgrowth  of  the  neo-Nazi
National  Front,  organized  the  National  Party  in  1975.
Because  of his known racism the British National  Union  of
Journalists denied him membership in their organization.

In  the  United States, McCalden (under the pseudonym  Lewis
Brandon)  has  worked  for Noontide  Press,  another  branch
organization  of the Liberty Lobby. McCalden, while  in  the
employ of Noontide Press, was in charge of distributing  The
White Student, a promotional organ of the Ku Klux Klan Youth

The Institute of Historical Review, in a 1981 mailing signed
by  McCalden  (under  his  alias Brandon),  as  a  stunt  to
publicize  its  Holocaust denial claims, offered  a  $50,000
reward  for  "proof" that Jews had been gassed at Auschwitz.
Melvin  Mermelstein,  an Auschwitz  survivor,  took  up  the
challenge  and  supplied the necessary  proof,  only  to  be
ignored  by the Institute. Mermelstein then sued.  In  July,
1985, the Institute, as a result of a Superior Court of  Los
Angeles ruling, agreed to pay Mermelstein the $50,000 reward
as well as an additional $100,000 for suffering he underwent
as  a  result of the Institute's publicity stunt; apologized
in  writing  to  Mr.  Mermelstein and  other  survivors  for
calling  the  Holocaust a hoax; accepted a  1981  California
Superior  Court  ruling (which formed part of  the  case  of
Mermelstein against the Institute) that the Nazi mass murder
of  Jews was an indisputable fact, and undertook publicly to
so declare.

David  McCalden has also been actively involved with Zundel.
He  formed part of Zundel's "Brains Trust" at his trial  and
was  also  present at the trial of James Keegstra.  McCalden
has  now  broken  with the Institute,  and  formed  his  own
enterprise, "Truth Missions", through which he continues  to
purvey  Holocaust  denial materials. A variety  of  Canadian
addresses are on his mailing list.

Antisemitism  is  a  most  redoubtable  of  bacteria,   ever
mutating  and developing new strains to survive  the  times.
Holocaust  denial has emerged in the contemporary  world  as
the ideological synthesis in the dialectics of antisemitism.
It  incorporates within it the age-old stereotype of the Jew
as  financial finagler, satanic, anti-Christian  force,  and
the   vicious  and  deadly  libel  of  the  Jew   as   world
conspirator. Holocaust denial, most effectively, has managed
to  pull  together the various antisemitic  strains  into  a
single,  coherent  whole. Nazis, theologians  of  hate,  and
white  supremacists  are as one in their  Holocaust  denial.
Holocaust  denial is the point and the cutting edge  of  the
antisemitic knife in the 1980's.

It should therefore not surprise us that Holocaust denial is
also anti-Zionist. The term Zionist rather than Jew is often
used in Holocaust denial lexicon. Israel figures prominently
as  the  conspirator and benefactor state.  The  Palestinian
people  appear in tandem with the German people as  the  two
communities victimized by the Jews. The aim is  to  bar  the
Jewish  state from its legitimate place in the community  of
nations,  in the same way that Nazism denied, and neo-Nazism
intends  to deny, Jews their rightful place in the societies
of  the diaspora. The integral inclusion of anti-Zionism  in
Holocaust  denial  makes  it  uniquely  dangerous.  Of   all
antisemitic  ideologies, Holocaust denial has brought  about
the  convergence of the radical right and the radical  left.
Right  and  left are elements as anathema to one another  as
fire  and water yet Jews are able to work such miracles even
among their enemies.

A  number  of  radical  leftists in  France  are  intimately
connected to Holocaust denial. They include Serge Thion, who
is  a  defender  of both Rassinier and Faurisson.  Thion  is
linked  with the Marxist publishing house "La Vieille Taupe"
®The  Old  Mole¯, founded by Pierre Guillaume. Guillaume  is
the  publisher  of  many of Faurisson's works  and  has  now
associated  himself  with Henri Roques.  The  most  shocking
association  of  all  is  that of  the  world-famous  Jewish
linguist and radical Noam Chomsky. Chomsky has described the
Holocaust  as  "the  most fantastic outburst  of  collective
insanity  in  human history". Yet this did not lead  him  to
prevent  a  piece he had allegedly written purely to  uphold
the  right of free speech from being used as an introduction
to  one of Faurisson's books. It also did not stop him  from
giving Guillaume publication rights in France to one of  his
important books. As Professor Werner Cohn has pointed out in
his   pamphlet  "The  Hidden  Alliances  of  Noam  Chomsky",
Guillaume's publishing house is a very obscure one  and,  if
it  has any credibility at all, it has it in good measure as
a result of the connection with Chomsky.

A  number  of radical leftists, because of their  antagonism
towards Israel and their anti-Zionism, have become Holocaust
deniers  or,  at the very least, are not loath to  associate
with  deniers.  In the same way that the neo-Nazis  have  to
deny  the  Holocaust to whitewash Nazism,  radical  leftists
have  to  deny  the  Holocaust to  undermine  the  strongest
justification  for  the creation and the  existence  of  the
State of Israel. And the radical leftists also resort to the
Orwellian inversion of images. Israel is described as a Nazi
state   and   accused  of  perpetrating  genocide   on   the

There  is  also, as Paul Berman has pointed out,  a  certain
strain  of  the  left  which mistrusts the  west  under  all
circumstances, and so it has come to mistrust  the  west  on
the  whole matter of World War 11 as well. As far  as  these
leftists  are  concerned  there  is  no  difference  between
bourgeois  democracy  and  bourgeois  Nazism  and   fascism.
Furthermore, twentieth century genocide flies in the face of
Marxist  optimism and the assurance of the inevitability  of
historical progress. Marxist optimism can only be  saved  if
the   various  genocides  that  we  have  witnessed  in  the
twentieth century can be portrayed as "rumours" rather  than

In  the  convergence of the left and the right, in Holocaust
denial  the  circle, paralleling Rassinier's own  life,  has
finally been closed.

Paul  Berman,  in  his  analysis of  Holocaust  denial,  has
written that "It has long been known that in times of  acute
social  crisis  antisemitism  takes  to  the  streets.   The
corollary now looming into focus is that in times  of  acute
ideological  crisis, antisemitism takes to the  intellectual
presses." Our examination of Holocaust deniers in Europe and
North  America  clearly indicates that one can  take  Berman
some  steps further, to say that antisemitism has  not  only
infiltrated certain intellectual presses but has become  the
preserve   of   a  portion  of  the  western  intelligentsia
Holocaust   deniers  are  in  the  main  university-educated
teachers,  academics, writers, professionals. They  are  not
exactly  like  flat  earthers. They are not  mere  kooks  or
inconsequential eccentrics dealing with a rather bizarre but
harmless theory.

Holocaust  denial  is  a  matter of concern  to  the  Jewish
community, certainly, but in fact it should be of concern to
all who prize democracy. The ultimate aim or consequence  of
Holocaust  denial  is the collapse of the open,  pluralistic
societies which we have all built together and hold so dear.

[In  Edmond Y. Lipsitz, ed. Canadian Jewry Today: Who's  Who
in  Canadian  Jewry. Downsview, Ontario. J.E.S.L.  Education
Products, 1989, pp. 30-36.]

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