Archive/File: orgs/american/christian.identity chr-iden.06 Last-Modified: 1994/06/19 Newsgroups: alt.revisionism,alt.revolution.counter From: email@example.com (Chris Stamper) Subject: "Identity: A Religion for White Racists" (fwd) Message-ID: <1994Jun19.firstname.lastname@example.org> Sender: email@example.com (Network News Administrator) Nntp-Posting-Host: rodan.syr.edu Organization: Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY Date: Sun, 19 Jun 1994 17:01:17 GMT Lines: 583 ---------- Forwarded message ---------- "Identity: A 'Christian' Religion for White Racists" (an article from the Christian Research Journal, Fall 1992, page 20) by Viola Larson. Copyright 1993 by the Christian Research Institute, P.O. Box 500, San Juan Capistrano, CA 92693. SUMMARY "Christian Identity" is the name of a religious movement uniting many of the white supremacist groups in the United States. Identity's teachers promote racism and sometimes violence. Their roots are deeply embedded in movements such as the Ku Klux Klan and the Nazis. They consider themselves true Israel and view the Jews as half-devils and arch enemies. They believe all but the white race are inferior creations. Identity's religious views are bizarre and occultic, and their view of history is often informed by conspiracy theories. Identity's use of the name "Christian" to promote racism and violence is blasphemous. Jesus Christ as redeemer of all races is God's supreme answer to Identity's outrageous claims. TEXT The headline read "Separatist Surrenders in Idaho." The story was about Randy Weaver, a man indicted for selling two sawed-off shotguns to undercover federal agents. During the FBI's attempt to force Weaver to leave his Idaho home and return to court, three people were killed: a federal agent and Weaver's wife and son. When the standoff was over, 15 handguns, shotguns, and rifles were collected from his cabin. Randy Weaver is a member of a religious movement called "Christian Identity." This "Christian" wing of the larger white supremacist movement is composed of adherents who variously give allegiance to the burning cross of the Ku Klux Klan and the sun sign - the twisted swastika - of the Neo-Nazis. The movement, also called "Israel Identity," has become the uniting force among many white supremacist groups. Included in most religious teaching produced by its leaders are racist statements that echo the statements of other white supremacists. The most moderate groups publish hate literature; the more radical groups turn to violence, including murder. Among those attracted to Identity in recent years are racist and violent young "skinheads" - some of whom were a part of the crowd of three hundred people who chanted racial slurs at federal marshals attempting to capture Weaver. Although Identity groups are small in number and diverse, their penchant for social agitation attracts widespread media attention. The recent discovery that racist groups in the United States are supplying both literature and organizational help to racist groups in Germany is of concern to the whole Western world. One article by the Associated Press states that "violent acts perpetrated by far-right German extremists rose from 270 in 1990 to 1,483 last year, mostly attacks on foreigners." The article goes on to say that "police investigating KKK activities in Germany raided some 30 buildings in May." Not understanding the violent and racist nature of Identity, Christians sometimes connect with this movement because of Identity's espousal of issues such as anti-Communism and the right to life. Because of this vulnerability it is important for Christians to know and understand Identity's false and racist teachings. For the sake of non-Christians, it is also important for Christians to differentiate between biblical Christianity and Identity. Finally, it is the moral duty of Christians to stand against the evil intent of this form of white supremacist teaching. It is to further each of these three purposes that this article has been written. THE JEW AS THE GREAT ENEMY Identity adherents believe they are the only descendants of Adam and the only chosen descendants of Abraham. This is the reason for the name Identity - they are convinced they know their true identity. They believe they are members of the supposed ten lost tribes of Israel. Identity adherents of today would include the British, Germanic, and Scandinavian peoples as those comprising the tribes of lost Israel. On the other hand, the Jew has for them become the great enemy. This insistence on singling out Jewish people as the enemy of the white race is the Identity movement's most clear link to Adolf Hitler and his Nazi ideas. The more extreme groups believe in what is referred to as the "serpent seed" teaching that Eve and Satan had sexual intercourse and produced Cain, starting a line of half-devil people. For many Identity groups this imagined half-devil line of Cain is the Jewish race. Pastor Arnold Murray, an Identity preacher from Gravette, Arkansas, calls them "Kenites" (an Old Testament people he identifies as "Cainites") and believes they were associated with Judah until they took over leadership of that tribe. These "Jews" were the people who killed Christ. Pastor Murray teaches that calling the Jews the chosen people of God is the gravest of sins. He says, "Bless your heart if you have ever been deceived by the Kenite, and I am speaking now on the spiritual level, if you have ever really believed that group was the chosen of God you were deceived by Satan. Repent of that even more so than your personal sins in the personal sense." Some other Identity teachers believe the Jews are children of Satan only in a figurative sense. But this really does not change their attitude toward Jewish people - their statements about the Jews still reflect a deep hatred. One writes about the Jew: "We know that as a race, they have the sly characteristics of the serpent...We know they have intimidated and imposed their will on our own government and every government in the nations of Christendom, through their dominance of finance, government, church, education, and the media." In this scenario, a political position begins to emerge: the Jews are placed in a position of conspirators with Satan to take dominion over the world. In an awful reversal of their biblical role, the true Jewish people are now cast as the archenemy of God and humanity. Claiming the sacred history and the sacred Book for themselves, Identity teachers remove all that is a part of the Jew's humanity. RACISM: THE BASIS OF IDENTITY TEACHING Racial bigotry extends far beyond the Jews in Identity teaching. Since the white race alone has descended from Adam, the other races are viewed as a _prior_ creation. They insist that Genesis 1:24, which describes the creation of animals and is prior to the creation of Adam, includes a description of all nonwhite races. In that list of created beings - "cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth" - they single out the word _beast_ as a description of other races. This of course means they believe the other races are inferior. All Identity teachers refer to the word _beast_ to explain how other races escaped the flood; they were included among the creatures that Noah and his sons rounded up for the ark. Because Identity teachers hold that the other races are of a different creation, they consider interracial marriage a sin. Identity teachers insist that interracial marriage was the cause of God's judgment on the people of Noah's time. Consistent with this twisted view of Scripture, they believe that to marry someone of another race is treason to one's own race. Pastor Pete Peters of La Porte, Colorado informs us that he teaches his children to never marry a person of another race. He adds: "I teach them also that if they ever did such a thing - never to come around my house with their mate or their half-breed children because they've been traitors to their own sires." Some teachers - such as Richard Butler and his Aryan Nations, and Dan Gayman and his Church of Israel - see the black race as aliens and cohorts with Satan, and all other races as creatures who, like animals, have no spirits. In the fantasy world of extreme Identity, when Lucifer rebels he uses spacecraft and fights battles against God with the help of beings from other planets. The alien beings are forced to earth according to one tape: "For the fleet...came to earth like crumpled birds and...some survived and...some were wiped out....the dark and curly-headed ones never before seen upon the earth, the coming of the Negroid race." Although Arnold Murray affirms that all the other races are good, he offers the public, without apology, the book _Tracing Our Ancestors_ by Frederick Haberman. Haberman writes: "It must be noticed that there is a great difference between the three principal races of mankind...and there exists little relationship between the three. The white race were unquestionably the last comers, being in every way superior to the other two and constituting their leaders and teachers." Pastor Murray also teaches that even among Christians the different races should have no fellowship. All Identity groups certainly see the white race ruling over the other races. IDENTITY'S RACIST HISTORY *Racism as Science and History.* Many of Identity's racist ideas can be traced to the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Esoteric sounding theories, propagated by intellectuals and college professors of the day, were used to prove the inferiority of some races. These theories have been disproved by modern scholarship but are kept alive by the racist of today. One of the terms common to such theories was _physiognomy,_ an ancient method for determining human character by the study of facial features. This included comparing those features to animal ones. Also, many historians of the time were highly nationalistic and, therefore, prone to write with a high regard for the white race. *Religious Racism.* Another form of racism developed along religious and nationalistic lines. The growing concern of the peoples in the West (including the United States) with their own national interest led to some strange ideas about national identity. In the United States a theory called "Manifest Destiny" evolved. That view included the understanding that it was the nation's God-given destiny to expand from the east coast to the west coast, and perhaps even to the southern end of Mexico. In England another movement began that would later blend well with the Manifest Destiny ideas held by some in the United States. This religious movement was nationalistic, assigning religious worth more to race than to righteousness. The movement, Anglo-Israelism, began in 1870. It was founded by the Rev. John Wilson, a nonconformist minister who expounded the idea that the Anglo-Saxons were the supposed ten lost tribes of Israel. Believing the nations of western Europe and the United States to be God's chosen people, they expected them to receive all the promises God gave to Israel in the Old Testament. Mr. Edward Hine brought the Anglo-Israelism movement to the United States in 1870, the same year the movement began in England. His efforts were mostly unfruitful, but his book, _Identification of the British Nation with Lost Israel,_ is still used by adherents of Identity in the United States. Hine's book was first among a spate of Anglo-Israel literature published in the U. S. - including a periodical published by Yale Professor Charles A. L. Totten called, _Our Race, Its Origins and Its Destiny._ Today, with few exceptions (the Worldwide Church of God being one), most adherents of Anglo-Israelism are in the Identity movement. *The Turn toward Violence.* Extreme racism entered Anglo-Israelism because some of its most prominent adherents were also connected to the Ku Klux Klan, and the Klan in turn had become interested in the Nazis. The KKK was born, without overt racist intentions, in 1867. Thomas F. Gossett, author of _Race: The History of an Idea in America,_ notes that "the Klan originated as a lark among young men in southern Tennessee who - so the story goes - chose this method of visiting their sweethearts attired in their version of the costume of Knights of old and discovered accidentally that they were terrifying the Negroes."12 The Klan grew in its attempt to control black people during the Reconstruction period. The methods included "assassination, whipping, tarring and feathering." The Klan during the 1920s added Jews and Catholics to their list of enemies in an attempt to attract more members. By 1923 membership had reached between three and six million people. Decline came with the depression of the 1930s and also with the Ku Klux Klan's overtures to the American arm of the Nazi party before the Second World War. The merging of Klan and Nazi extremism into the Anglo-Israelism movement - which then produced the Identity movement - can largely be traced to one man: Wesley Swift. However, it was not Swift but Howard B. Rand (whose writings are published by Destiny Publishers) who first coined the term _Identity._ According to James Coates, Rand's intention was "to describe Hine's concept of Anglo-Israelism, in which Jesus was not a Jew of the tribe of Judah but an Aryan of the ten lost tribes of Israel and an ancestor of the present British, Germanic and Scandinavian people." Wesley Swift was a prolific speaker and his tapes and written messages are frequently used by Identity speakers. His connections to the Nazism of Hitler's Germany are unquestionable. Swift was at one time both a friend and advance man for Gerald L. K. Smith, a racist whose radical career began when he joined the "Silver Shirts," an American Nazi group formed by Willam Pelley. James Ridgeway, author of _Blood in the Face_ (a "who's-who of hate"), notes that "with Pelley as their 'Chief,' the Silver Shirts openly supported Hitler, cooperated with the pro-Nazi German-American Bund, and embarked on a program of vicious anti-Semitism." Swift was also a member of the Ku Klux Klan when he founded the Identity Church of Jesus Christ Christian in 1946. Richard Butler, who was led into the Identity movement by Wesley Swift, inherited Swift's church and founded an Identity compound called the Aryan Nations, located near Hayden Lake, Idaho. Butler is an advocate of Nazism, and his yearly Aryan Nations meetings attract Klan members, Nazi groups, and skinheads. Some Identity teachers, although racist, reject Nazism in name, attributing its cause to the Jews. This trend has started a new controversy within the ranks of Identity. The Identity groups who reject Nazism also do so because they are perceptive enough to recognize Nazism's ingrained hatred of true Christianity. IDENTITY'S SPIRITUAL HISTORY The list of spiritual influences touching Identity resembles a religious vanity fair. The Neo-Nazi movement embraces the zodiac of astrology as easily as it does the teaching of the quietest mystic Madame Guyon. Its teachers write against the New Age movement while embracing occultist Edgar Cayce. They also welcome the deliverance ministries (those ministries that specialize in the controversial practice of casting demons out of Christians) while embracing the world of the occult. *Occult Influence.* Some of the groups that reject Nazism seem to feature less occult teaching within their published material. However, except for racist literature, occult teachings have probably had the greatest influence on most Identity groups and individuals. This may have partly developed from prewar occultic German groups that were also anti-Semitic. German cults such as the Alder and Falken and the Geusen worshiped the sun. And one influence on Hitler was a group whose emphasis on German nationality was connected to their interest in the Druids - an ancient pagan people many Identity groups also embrace. Wesley Swift used occult legends as "truths" in his sermons. His bizarre teachings included stories about Atlantis and Lemuria, fictional civilizations included in most occult philosophy. Identity teachers of today such as Pastor Arnold Murray maintain that the great Pyramid was built by the Israelites and is a second revelation of God. The idea that the measurements of the pyramid are encoded with a revealed message is occultic, since the message is both supernaturally given and esoteric, known only by those initiated into that knowledge. Identity also embraces astrology and occultic tales of Jesus visiting Britain. *Other Streams of Religious Influence.* Because many Identity adherents are people with a history of looking for "new truths," they often come to Identity from other religious movements, bringing some of their unique doctrines with them. Thus the teachings of several smaller religious groups have been added to the racist teachings of Identity. These include the Sacred Name movement (using only _Yahweh_ for God and _Yehoshua_ or some equivalent for Jesus); Jesus Only teaching (the belief that there are not three persons in the Godhead, only three offices); and the Manifest Sons of God teaching (the expectation that an elite group of the church will deliver creation, overcome death, and help God bring in the kingdom). A few people came out of the restoration and charismatic movements and added their unique doctrines to Identity. The restoration movement teaches that God is restoring lost doctrines to the church. Utilizing this framework, the Identity teachers include Identity as one of the lost doctrines. (It is important to point out that although Identity teachers variously link Identity to the above movements and teachings, properly speaking thesemovements have nothing to do with Identity.) THE BONDING LINK OF CONSPIRACY The Identity stand against the Jews as a people without value who are enemies of the white race aligns the movement with other groups that feed constantly on conspiracy theories, including ones that are Nazi without teaching Anglo-Israelism. This taste for anti-Semitism is most responsible for the intermingling of Identity, Neo-Nazi, and other racist groups. Different groups will often use the same speakers at their various churches and survivalist camps. And individual members of different groups will order the same books from racist publishers. For instance, many Identity groups offer books by E. Raymond Capt and also use him as a speaker, since his specialty is supposedly archaeology and history. Capt's writing includes such books as _Stonehenge and Druidism_ and _The Traditions of Glastonbury: The Silent Years of Jesus between 12 and 30._ Another speaker used by most groups is Lt. Col. Jack Mohr, whose specialty is anti-Communism. Mohr offers such tapes as "Background to Betrayal: How America Has Been Betrayed by Zionists Both Jewish and Christian." Many racist groups, including Identity groups, sell or refer to the book, _Protocols of the Elders of Zion._ This fraudulent book is supposedly a document of conspiracy by Jewish leaders to take over the world. Most conspiracy theories have developed from a particular fear - and the need to master that fear, by identifying a cause and then supposedly gaining control of the situation. For instance, the cause of the Black Plague in the Middle Ages was attributed to the Jew. The solution espoused was to kill or remove the Jews. Then the plague would supposedly end. The disastrous condition of Germany after the First World War was attributed to the Jew by some fearful Germans. Eventually their evil solution brought about the Holocaust. All of these groups together, both Identity and non-Identity white supremacist, hold a dangerous sociopolitical view. Their mutual solution to this supposed "Jewish control" is a race war. This war is considered by many Identity teachers to be the last great battle, Armageddon. According to these teachers, at the head of this conspiracy that leads to the final battle is ZOG: Zionist Occupation Government. Zionist Occupation Government simply means to Identity adherents that the Jewish conspiracy has taken over the government of the United States. Since they also believe that Jewish leaders are using other races to destroy the white race, the final battle pits the white race against virtually all others. And, because they constantly feed on conspiracy theories that involve those whose beliefs or politics oppose their own, Identity's political and religious opposites are also considered their enemies. Furthermore, they do not have to love their enemies because they consider most of them subhuman. THE PARASITIC EXISTENCE OF IDENTITY The farm crisis is an important source for Identity propaganda. Using such tapes as "A Biblical Look at the Farm Problem," they prey on farmers who are losing their farms. Some Identity teachers are suggesting that ZOG or the Jews are behind the loss of the farms. They have managed to pull a few farmers into the movement through these tactics. This kind of parasitic existence is typical of Identity extremism. They appeal to other conservatives concerning such issues as AIDS, abortion, and prison reform. _This is where some Christians have been pulled into the circle of Identity._ Many Christians find they are facing a bewildering morass of social problems. For some this has led to a deeper understanding of God's sovereignty, and a greater dependence on His grace and mercy to sinners. For others there is the enticing reach for the quick answer. And this has meant a return to philosophies that are _void_ of grace. At this point it is possible for the bits and pieces of Identity to seep in. Christians who are far from Identity's blatant racism nonetheless allow Identity's attitudes and world view - including conspiracy theories - to touch the core of their faith. Turning to ideas, news sources, and leaders who lack an understanding of the true gospel, these Christians accept into their beliefs and their publications concepts that are not biblical. GOD'S ANSWER TO RACISM The psalmist wrote, "Thy word I have treasured in my heart, that I may not sin against thee" (Ps. 119:11). A lack of biblical teaching in differing ages has often opened the door for both heresy and sin within the Christian community. In the Nazi era a great deal of Old Testament Scripture had already been rejected by many liberal scholars, mainly in Germany. Unlike the Identity movement of today, which accepts all of the Bible as inspired, the Nazis who considered themselves "Christian" were able to divorce the Jewish foundation of Christianity by simply disconnecting Christianity from both the Old Testament and Paul. Most of the "German Christians" - those loyal to Hitler - based their religious views on a kind of nationalistic nonsectarian ethic. Franklin Littell, Professor of Religion at Temple University, writes: "The 'German Christians' were at least logical enough to press the religion of the ethnic base, infused with spirituality, to its logical conclusion: antisemitism." The point is: without a biblical basis, without Jesus Christ as Lord, any religion, even one named Christian - _especially_ one named Christian, can produce gross evil. Although the religious teachers of "Christian Identity" do not reject the Old Testament or Paul, they distort and twist Scripture until little is left. The Identity teachers' conclusion that the British, Scandinavian, and Germanic peoples are the lost tribes of Israel is a case in point. _None of the tribes of Israel have been lost._ While many of the northern tribes of Israel - carried into exile by Assyria - intermarried with the peoples they lived among, there is no biblical reference that would encourage this teaching of lost tribes. Christ's statement that He "was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt. 15:24) is not a reference to tribes that had physically disappeared, but to a people who were lost _in sin._ Earlier in the text Jesus had sent His twelve disciples "to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt. 10:6), and the disciples did not need to search for the people they were sent to help. After the captivity of the Northern Kingdom of Israel and the Babylonian captivity of the Southern Kingdom of Judah, all twelve tribes - whether living outside of the homeland or within the homeland - were referred to as _both_ Jews _and_ Israel. Both the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah, books about the return of God's people to Jerusalem after their captivity, use the two terms, _Jews_ and _Israel,_ to refer to the same people (e.g., Ezra 2:26; 4:12; Neh. 1:6; 4:1-2). Paul refers to himself as both a Jew and an Israelite. Writing of God's enduring of the "vessels of wrath" for the sake of those He would show mercy to, he notes: "And He did so in order that He might make known the riches of His glory upon the vessels of mercy, which He prepared beforehand for glory, even us, whom He also called, not from among Jews only, but also from among Gentiles" (Rom. 9:23-24). In the same chapter he writes: "For I could wish that I myself were accursed, separated from Christ for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites" (Rom. 9:3-4). Luke in the second chapter of Acts records the fact that Jerusalem was filled at Pentecost with Jews from many lands, and when Peter addresses them he refers to them as "men of Israel." Jesus explained to the Samaritan woman that "we worship that which we know, for salvation is from the Jews" (John 4:22), not only calling Himself a Jew but pointing her toward the Jewish people, whom God had chosen to bless the world through the promised Messiah. Once the error of Anglo-Israelism is exposed it leaves the Identity believer in a very damning position - Identity adherents are not the chosen people, rather they are the ones _attacking_ the chosen people, the Jews. And they are also the ones ranting against the true church of Christ. They are, in fact, attacking God, for their attempt to relegate other races to an earlier and inferior creation is an attack on the love of God, as well as the image of God in all humanity. It is the image of God in humans that sets them apart from all other creatures and prepares the way for Christ to take unto Himself human flesh and redeem people of all races. The biblical themes of redemption, the Incarnation, and the unity of humanity ("every nation and race") are constantly blended together in Scripture. When Paul preached to the Athenians on Mars Hill he appealed to their common humanity as creations of the true God when he stated: "And He made from one, every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed times, and the boundaries of their habitation, that they should seek God, if perhaps they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us" (Acts 17:26-27). Genesis 10:1-32 names most of the nations that developed from the three sons of Noah. Derek Kidner, author of _Genesis_ in the Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, writes: "Not every nation known to the Old Testament is enrolled here, but enough are present to make the point that mankind is one, for all its diversity, under the one creator. Possibly the seventy names (Lxx 72) influenced our Lord's choice of this apparently symbolic number of emissaries in Luke 10:1." Jesus Christ is God's answer to racism. Paul admonishes the Galatians that they are to make no distinctions among those belonging to Christ; they are to be _as one:_ "For all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus" (Gal. 3:27-28). In the Book of Revelation, where Christ is pictured as both "the Lion that is from the tribe of Judah" _and_ "a Lamb standing, as if slain," the 24 Elders sing to His glory: "For Thou wast slain, and didst purchase for God with Thy blood men from _every tribe and tongue and people and nation._ And thou hast made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God; and they will reign upon the earth" (Rev. 5:9-10). The church, those redeemed not by race but by the blood of Christ the Lamb, understand Christ as both lion and lamb, both sacrifice and King. Wilhelm Niemoller, one of the members of the Confessing Church in Germany during the time of Hitler, wrote of what it meant to confess Christ as the only Lord under that regime: "One of my friends concluded a sermon of his in 1934 or 1935 by saying: 'O Lord, Thou alone art our hope, apart from Thee, I know none!' He was arrested, put on trial, and later released. The enemies that listened to him had noticed that the Third Reich was put in a difficult position wherever the 'One Word of God' made its appearance." The Neo-Nazi groups and those who feed on their hate literature are simply a part of the rising paganism in America. They are also an extreme example of groups who like to use Christian terminology while laying foundations on extrabiblical revelation. The need for present security, elitism, power, and a revelation not anchored in Christ and the Word of God is the mark of anti-Christian religion. The believer's only haven is Christ. This means there is no present worldly security - the believer is not an elite person. Instead, members of Christ's church are often the ones hated and despised by the nations. The only power given is that which _Christ_ gives, so that His followers may be able to faithfully love, serve, and suffer in this present world. Finally, the believer finds racial pride to be sin, because the only exaltation a Christian knows is God's unmerited grace, freely offered to _all_ in Jesus Christ. Previously the director of Apologetics Resource Center, Sacramento, California, Viola Larson is a graduate student in history at California State University, Sacramento. NOTES 1 John E. Yang, "Separatist Surrenders in Idaho," _Sacramento Bee,_ 1 September 1992, part A. 2 "U.S. Hate Groups Spread Their Venom to Germany," _Sacramento Bee,_ 14 August 1992, part A. 3 _Ibid._ 4 Arnold Murray, _Grace: Baptism_ (cassette #406) (Gravette, AR: Shepherd's Chapel, n.d.). 5 Jack Mohr, "Seed of Satan: Literal or Figurative?" (Louis, MI: n.p., n.d.) 26. 6 Pete Peters, _Inter-Racial Marriage,_ part l (cassette 170) (La Porte, CO: Scriptures for America, n.d.). 7 Wesley Swift, _Dwellers in the Deep_ (cassette 350) (Waynesville, NC: New Beginnings, 1964). 8 Federick Haberman, _Tracing Our Ancestors_ (n.p., n.d.), 10. Reference is made within the book to Hitler in Germany, dating the book sometime before World War II. 9 Murray, _Grace: Baptism._ 10 Thomas F. Gossett, _Race: The History of an Idea in America_ (New York: Schocken Books, 1965), 71. 11 James Coates (New York: Hill and Wang, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1987), 181; Gossett, 192. 12 Gossett, 259-60. 13 _Ibid.,_ 260. 14 Coates, 33-36. 15 _Ibid.,_ 93. 16 James Ridgeway, _Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture_ (New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1990), 45.
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