The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Shofar FTP Archive File: miscellany/holocaus/log9308

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Date: Wed, 17 Nov 1993 13:33:09 -0600
From: BITNET list server at UICVM (1.7f) 
Subject: File: "HOLOCAUS LOG9308"
To: Ken McVay 
Status: O

Date:         Mon, 2 Aug 1993 10:35:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Centre for the Study of Propaganda

[Date:     Mon, 02 Aug 93 09:46:33 +0100
[To: holocaus@uicvm
[Subject:  Centre for the Study of Propaganda

The Centre for the Study of Propaganda is a new department at the
University of Kent in Canterbury,England. Its Director is Professor
David Welch who is also Professor of Modern European History. His recent
publications include: 'The Third Reich: politics and propaganda.'London
& New York. Routledge, 1993.
The Centre is interested in all aspects of 20th Century propaganda
particularly Nazi Germany.
It has a small but growng collection of films and video tapes.

For information contact:

Professor David Welch
The Centre for the Study of Propaganda
Rutherford College
University of Kent
Kent CT2 7NX
Telephone (0)44 227 764000 ext. 3472

or email
Peter Lindley
Associate Fellow
Date:         Mon, 2 Aug 1993 15:00:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Impact of Holocaust Museum

[Date: Mon, 02 Aug 1993 11:05:17 -0700 (PDT)
[From: "Sam Edelman, Ph.D." 
[Subject: Re: Holocaust Museum = too negative

Having Just returned from Israel only a day ago from meetings at Yad Vashem I
wanted to comment on some of the discussion on the US Holocaust memorial museum
..  I have seen the museum during the weeks before its opening and I have come
to the conclusion that it offers a very important and crucial understanding of
the Holocaust that no other museum offers--a kind of moral imperative which
should underline all policy decisions.  Yad Vashem and I hope the New Museum in
New York (the Jewish Heritage Museum under the direction of David Altshuler)
offer a very different and equally important service by covering the specifics
Of Jewish response in a significant manner. Weisenthal in LA too offers another
approach which is crucial dealing with the continuation of prejudice and hate
even in our own society.  Each museum quite rightly is cutting out for
themselves important niches in our understanding of the Holocaust.  I am coming
to appreciate these efforts more and more.  Sam Edelman
of Jewish response in a significant manner--wei
Date:         Wed, 4 Aug 1993 13:12:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re:  Death Camps in Poland

[Date: Tue, 03 Aug 1993 23:49:39 +0000 (WET)
[Subject: Re: death camps in Poland

Since only one person taking part in this particular discussion
mentioned any sources pertaining to it, let me offer a brief fragment
from one of the quoted books:

Yisrael Gutman and Shmuel Krakowski, "Unequal Victims. Poles and Jews
During World War II" (New York: Holocaust Library, 1986).

p. 1 of Preface:

"Of course, one cannot charge the Poles with the responsibility for
the Holocaust and the Jewish tragedy during World War II. The Poles
did not plan, initiate, nor carry out the destruction of the Jews.
There is also no solid basis for the argument that the Germans chose
Poland, as the site for the establishment of the death camps because
the Poles were known for their anti-Semitism and therefore could be
counted on for collaboration in the process of the destruction
of the Jews. The truth is that the Nazis evidently chose areas of
Poland as the murder site because millions of Jews lived in that
country; Poland was under an absolute occupation force; and, finally,
in Poland, far from the heart of Europe, it was easier to cover up
the murder and to carry it out under conditions of secrecy."

Jerzy Remigioni, Stuttgart
Date:         Wed, 4 Aug 1993 13:17:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Chomsky on the Holocaust

[Date: Tue, 3 Aug 1993 18:13:37 -0400 (EDT)
[From: Cecelia A Clancy 
[Subject: Chomsky on the holocaust (fwd)

There was recently quite a long and protracted
discussion of Noam Chomsky on another list, the
Progressive Jewish Mailing List.

The following forward can add to the discussion that was

--  Cecelia

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Wed, 7 Jul 93 15:14:04 -0400
From: Asa Kasher 
To: Multiple recipients of list 
Subject: Chomsky on the holocaust

For Chomsky's views of the so-called "Faurisson affair", one has
to consult, first and foremost, Chomsky's own writings.
In an interview (26 October 1981), published under the title
"The treachery of the intelligentsia: A French travesty," in
Chomsky's collection of interviews LANGUAGE AND POLITICS
(edited by C.P. Otero, Black Rose Books, Montreal and New York,
1988), pp. 312-323, one reads:
"Perhaps I should clarify, once again, that my statement was not
written as a preface to the book, which I did not know existed, and
that I asked to have it withdrawn, though too late to affect
publication a few weeks after I wrote it, a fact that has been
subjected to much absurd and malicious comment in the French
"My interest in this affair has been quite limited. I was asked to
sign a petition calling on authorities to protect Faurisson's
civil rights, and did so. I sign innumerable petitions of this
nature, and do not recall ever having refused to sign one. I
assumed that the matter would end there. It did not, because *a
barrage of lies* in France, claimed, among other absurdities,
that by defending Faurisson's civil rights I was defending his
views. I then wrote the statement mentioned before. This and similar
comments of mine evoked a new wave of falsification."
"There is no space here to review the record of lies and deceit
about my alleged views... [M]y involvement in the Faurisson affair...
consists of signature to a petition, and, after that, response to
lies and slander. Period."
"My own view is that there are no reasonable grounds to doubt
the existence of gas chambers.... The claim that there were no
gas chambers seems to me highly implausible, and the denial of
the holocaust, completely so... I see no need to investigate
"Nazism was unique in its horrors, perhaps without historical
precedent, as I have often written."

Asa Kasher
(Philosophy, Tel-Aviv University)
Date:         Wed, 4 Aug 1993 14:48:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Choice Book Reviews

--------------------Choice On-Line Reviews -----------------------------------

       Neo-Fascism in Europe
       ed. by Luciano Cheles, Ronnie Ferguson, and Michalina Vaughan
      299 pages       1991        Longman      $19.95
ISBN:            0-582-03951-7
Reviewed in:     Choice, vol. 29 no.2           1991oct

Review: This collection of essays provides an assessment of radical
        right political movements and parties presently active in
        Western Europe.  In addition to examining the
        none-too-bright prospects of neofascism in Britain, France,
        Germany, and Italy, contributors offer accounts of the
        Portugal (coverage of Belgium and the Netherlands would
        have been helpful too).  Beyond the country-by-country
        review, there are separate papers on such themes as
        neofascist propaganda techniques and Holocaust revisionism.
         The authors contribute to an understanding of neofascism
        in a number of ways.  For instance, they note the
        surprising expression of interest in the Strasser brothers
        (the anti-Hitler Nazis) among many contemporary neofascist
        writers.  The essay on the British National Front documents
        Arab funding for various racist and anti-Semitic
        enterprises in the UK and elsewhere.  There is a growing
        interest in and a developing literature about right-wing
        extremism in the contemporary world.  Another collection,
        Right-Wing Extremism in Western Europe, ed. by Klaus von
        Beyme, appeared in 1988, and more books are in the works.
        Upper-division undergraduates.

Reviewer:        Weinberg, Leonard
Reviewer affil:  University of Nevada, Reno

       Jewish settlement and community in the modern western
        world:  [v.1],      ed. by Ronald Dotterer, Deborah Dash
        Moore, andSteven M. Cohen. -
      218pp    Susquehanna University  1991 Available:(Dist. by Associated
        ISBN 0-945636-13-X,  Price: $29.50-
Reviewed in:     Choice, vol. 29, no.03       1991nov-

Review: An important collection of essays by leading scholars
        engaged in Christian-Jewish dialogue that share, from their
        perspectives, the meaning of the controversy surrounding
        the building of a Carmelite convent at the site of the
        Auschwitz camp.  The editors posed three questions to the
        contributors.  First, how does the Auschwitz convent
        controversy and its seeming resolution reflect and affect
        the most important issues in Jewish-Christian relations?
        Second, in both the Jewish and Christian traditions, what
        needed to address the issues in ways that might improve
        those relationships?  Third, are there lessons Jews and
        Christians can learn as a result of this controversy?  The
        editors, in raising these questions, work on the thesis
        that the Christian claim of the  "new " covenant
        superseding Judaism's  "old " covenant helped make the
        Holocaust happen by inciting anti-Jewish contempt in which
        Nazism would later flourish.  That flourishing implicates
        Christianity in a twisted road that led to Auschwitz,
        which, in turn, made the Carmelite convent problematic and
        controversial.  The volume also includes an interesting
        interview with Elie Wiesel.  The essays should be read
        along with Wladyslaw T. Bartoszewski's The Convent at
        Auschwitz (1991).  For graduate and undergraduate

Reviewer:        J. Fischel,

      Abrahamsen, Samuel
       Norway's response to the Holocaust
      207 pages       1991
Pub. name:       Holocaust Library
      $21.95           $13.95
ISBN:            0-89604-116-6
ISBN:            0-89604-117-4
Reviewed in:     Choice, vol. 28 no.10       1991jun

Review:     Until now, there has never been a full, documented
        historical study ofthe experiences of Norway's Jews during
        WW II.  Abrahamsen's monograph fills this niche admirably.
        A native Norwegian of Jewish background who achieved
        eminent academic stature in postwar America, the author
        provides a detailed narrative of the Norwegian Jews facing
        the Holocaust, drawn primarily from contemporary Norwegian
        Norway's small Jewish community, the rise of the Quisling
        Nazi Party there, and the growing persecution of Jews after
        the German invasion and occupation.  Nearly half of the
        Norwegian Jews were ultimately deported to Auschwitz, where
        they died, while the rest were heroically smuggled to
        safety in Sweden with the aid of the Norwegian Resistance.
        Their story in Norway is one of both tragedy and survival.
        Accompanied by an extensive bibliography and appended
        documents, the book is highly readable and should long
        remain the definitive study of the fate of Norway's Jews at
        Nazi hands.  Recommended for graduate, undergraduate, and
        public libraries.

Reviewer:        Smemo, Kenneth
Reviewer affil:  Moorhead State University
      Reno, Janet
       Ishmael alone survived
      171 pages       1990      1991
        Bucknell UP   Distributor:     Associated University Presses  $29.50
                ISBN:            0-8387-5171-7
Reviewed in:     Choice, vol. 28 no.10         1991jun

Review: Reno, who has taught English and American literature at
        Howard, George Mason, and Catholic University of America,
        examines Moby-Dick as a survivor's narrative, focusing on
        the psychological need of Ishmael to tell his story as sole
        survivor of the tragedy of the Pequod.  She asserts that
        the reader must accept Ishmael as the fictional author of
        the novel and as completely distinct from Melville.
        survivors Bruno Bettelheim and Viktor Frankl among others,
        Reno contends that Ishmael must tell his digressive tale in
        order to come to terms with the tragedy, heal himself, and
        get on with his life.  Her interpretation demonstrates that
        Moby-Dick, seemingly flawed in its structure as a novel,
        may be viewed as a tightly structured survivor's narrative.
         The adequate index, chapter notes, and bibliography
        contain, not surprisingly, many more references to
        psychological than to literary studies.  The book could
        prove useful to upper-division undergraduate or graduate
        students interested in unique interpretations of Moby-Dick
        or in the structure of the survivor's narrative.

Reviewer:        Mayer, Glenn A.
Reviewer affil:  SUNY College at Oneonta

       Genocide:  a critical bibliographic review.  v.2,      ed.
        by Israel W. Charny. -
      432p-          Facts on File  1991.-
        ISBN 0-8160-2642-4,  Price: $65.00-
Reviewed in:     Choice, vol. 29, no.06       1992feb-

Review:  This is a worthy sequel to the first volume of this series
        (CHOICE, Dec'88), a pioneering work.  Besides a  "General "
        category, the essays and bibliographies are arranged
        according to three broad themes:   "Denial of the Holocaust
        and the Armenian Genocide, "  "Law and Genocide, "
        "Educating about the Holocaust and Genocide. "  All the
        essays are analytic and penetrating, and the bibliographies
        are really critical, but the most stimulating are those in
        the  "Denial " category, the two essays on the museums and
        memorials of the Holocaust, and that on the language of
        genocide.  A good index brings all titles, authors, and
        bibliographic entries.  Surprisingly, no indication is
        found on either the spine or the front cover that this is
        Volume 2, which may mislead the casual reader into assuming
        that it is merely a revised edition. Highly recommended for
        all college libraries and for special Judaica and Holocaust

Reviewer:        D. Kranzler,
Reviewer affil:  Queensborough Community College, CUNY-
Date:         Thu, 5 Aug 1993 09:19:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re: Unequal Victims

[Date: Wed, 4 Aug 1993 17:52:34 -0400 (EDT)
[From: Cecelia A Clancy 
[Subject: Unequal Victims
[To: Holocaust List 

> [Date: Tue, 03 Aug 1993 23:49:39 +0000 (WET)
> [From:
> [Subject: Re: death camps in Poland
> [To:
> Yisrael Gutman and Shmuel Krakowski, "Unequal Victims. Poles and Jews
> During World War II" (New York: Holocaust Library, 1986).

And when is anybody going to write "Unequal Victims.  Germans and Jews"?

> p. 1 of Preface:
> "Of course, one cannot charge the Poles with the responsibility for
> the Holocaust and the Jewish tragedy during World War II. The Poles
> did not plan, initiate, nor carry out the destruction of the Jews.
> There is also no solid basis for the argument that the Germans chose
> Poland, as the site for the establishment of the death camps because

Oh, so *I* chose Poland, as the site.....    I mean, I *AM* one of
the Germans, am I not?

> the Poles were known for their anti-Semitism and therefore could be
> counted on for collaboration in the process of the destruction
> of the Jews. The truth is that the Nazis evidently chose areas of
Oh, now Gutman and Krakowski get it right.    Why couldn't they
have gotten it right the first time.

Anybody who thinks I am being oversensitive is themselves being
too undersensitive.

For example, how many Jews, when reading the Gospel of John, feel
personally offended, personally attacked, personally belittled, or
something similar, whenever they read passages about the crucifixion and
related events about how "the Jews" did this or that to Jesus or of how
the apostles hid in the upper room, not daring to go out, as John puts
it, "for fear of the Jews."

And as another example, what if you had to sit in a high school or
college class and have to listen to an Anglophile teacher or professor
lecture on the British colony of Palestine during the 1930's and
1940's continually refer to "the Jews" blowing up the King David Hotel
and to "the Jews" mudering four of the Crown's finest.

What if you had no Hillel Foundation or ADL to go to complain about
a professor saying "the Jews" when she/he should be saying "the Irgun"?
What if it was so "popular" out in society in general to at worst,
hate the Jews or scorn them or make them the butts of jokes, and at least,
not care the least bit about how any of the Jews feel about how
Jewish-relalated material is presented in class that you felt that it
would be no use even talking to the professor or department chair about
it?      You would just have to "take it", now wouldn't you?    And
what do you think that would do to you over a period of many years - to
include your formative years?

I have had to "take it" for years and will take it no more.    I have
every right to speak up against the use of the word "German" in contextes
where the words "Nazi" or "SS" would be far more appropriate.

Let's be careful about how we throw around words like "German", "Pole",
"Ukrainian", etc.

--  Cecelia
Date:         Thu, 5 Aug 1993 11:38:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Demjanjuk

[Date: Thu, 05 Aug 1993 10:11:31 -0600 (CST)
[Subject: Demjanjuk
[To: Holocaust List <>

Isn't the news hype currently being orchestrated around John Demjanjuk by the
North American media fixating on the wrong issue -- or rather a non-issue?  The
recent U.S. court decision decreed that this man should be returned to the U.S.
in connection with the extradition order that originally sent him to Israel.
Demjanjuk was originally stripped of his U.S. citizenship and ordered to be
deported -- presumably back to the Ukraine in the USSR -- because, when he
applied for immigration to the U.S. he had lied about his Nazi and SS past (and
NOT because he might or might not have been Ivan the Terrible).  My
is that it was AFTER his loss of U.S. citizenship that Israel stepped in and, in
effect, said: "How about deporting him to Israel to stand trial?"
If he had been a U.S. citizen, it would have been reasonable -- indeed
indisputable unarguable -- that he should return to the U.S. after his acquittal
in Israel.  If the clock is to be put back, shouldn't it be to the period
the revocation of his U.S. citizenship and the Israeli application for
extradition?  Is it a symptom of the new U.S. way of life, i.e. a pre-occupation
with litigation and a Big Brother mentality, that they should have the audacity
to request one sovereign country, Israel, to send a person of another
nationality, Ukrainian, to appear before a U.S. court on  a matter that has
become totally redundant?

John McLeod
Date:         Thu, 5 Aug 1993 11:40:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Budapest Anne Frank School wants contacts

From:   IN%"JEWISHNT@BGUVM.BITNET"  "JEWISHNT - Jewish Global Information Networ
   k Project"  4-AUG-1993 18:10:37.74

Date: 03 Aug 1993 07:41:29 -0700 (PDT)
From: Judy Eber 
Subject: Re: Jewish Networking in Hungary: The Past and Future Cultural Journal
To: JEWISHNT - Jewish Global Information Network Project 

When in Budapest 3years ago I met with the Principal of The Anne Frank school.
Would be very interested in pursuing communication with students there
(and/or any other schools) and students participating in the GesherNet project
in Los Angeles.
Judy Eber

To: viner@bguvm.bitnet
Date:         3 Aug 93 11:53:54
Subject:      GJN - Hungary

    I'd like to help ( with limited free time ).  My mother tongue is
Hungarian, would it be at any help?  I will also write to Laszlo.

                              * * * * * * *

Dov Winer
Ben Gurion University
Internet : viner at
Date:         Thu, 5 Aug 1993 16:01:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Re: Demjanjuk

[Subject: Re: Demjanjuk
[Date: Thu, 5 Aug 1993 13:58:52 -0400 (EDT)
[From: Eliot Friedman 

John McLeod asks>

> Isn't the news hype currently being orchestrated around John Demjanjuk by the
> North American media fixating on the wrong issue -- or rather a non-issue?  Th
> recent U.S. court decision decreed that this man should be returned to the U.S
> in connection with the extradition order that originally sent him to Israel.
> Demjanjuk was originally stripped of his U.S. citizenship and ordered to be
> deported -- presumably back to the Ukraine in the USSR -- because, when he
> applied for immigration to the U.S. he had lied about his Nazi and SS past (an
> NOT because he might or might not have been Ivan the Terrible).  My
>  understanding
> is that it was AFTER his loss of U.S. citizenship that Israel stepped in and,
> effect, said: "How about deporting him to Israel to stand trial?"
> If he had been a U.S. citizen, it would have been reasonable -- indeed
> indisputable unarguable -- that he should return to the U.S. after his acquitt
> in Israel.  If the clock is to be put back, shouldn't it be to the period
>  between
> the revocation of his U.S. citizenship and the Israeli application for
> extradition?  Is it a symptom of the new U.S. way of life, i.e. a pre-occupati
> with litigation and a Big Brother mentality, that they should have the audacit
> to request one sovereign country, Israel, to send a person of another
> nationality, Ukrainian, to appear before a U.S. court on  a matter that has
> become totally redundant?

Nobody's going to argue that the US isn't overly litigous.  There does
seem to be some confusion over why Ivan the [some degree of evil other
than terrible] is coming back.  Apparently, US Dept. of Justice officials
made some "errors" in their initial investigation of Demanjuk.  While it
seems unlikely that these errors will warrant reinstatement of his
citizenship, due process (something we pay a lot of attention to)
requires that the case be reviewed.  Strangely enough, Demanjuk's
civil rights may have been violated.  Plenty of lawyers will be more
than willing to help Demanjuk sue the DOJ.

Even though I doubt he'll ever be a citizen again, it's entirely
possible Demanjuk (or his heirs, considering how slowly these cases
progress) will become rich from these proceedings.  A truly Kafkaesque
ending to his trial.

Date:         Thu, 5 Aug 1993 16:49:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      H-Net Job postings

    H-Net Job Guide August 4, 1993
    [this list may be copied and circulated; please send
    announcements of new jobs to: H-NET@uicvm]
    This week:  13 jobs; 423 lines
      1. African American Studies, Director *  College of Charleston
      2. American Legal History *  Federal Judicial Center * DC
      3. European Social History *  Ball State U  * Indiana
      4. General History * Utah Valley State College
      5. History * Horry-Georgetown Technical College * So Carolina
      6. Latin American History *  U of New Mexico
      7. Library: Archivist * Vanderbilt U Medical Center *  Tenn
      8. Library: Special Collections Curator *  Penn St U Harrisburg
      9. Modern European History *  Augsburg College *  Minnesota
     10. Political Science-History Georgia Military College
     11. Publications Director Missouri Historical Society
     12. Race -- Ethnic Studies Program Director U of Redlands
     13. American History, 20c Roosevelt University *  Illinois
 1. African American Studies, Director   College of Charleston
    Director, The Avery Research Center
    For African American History & Culture
    Director of the African American Studies Program

    Applications and nominations are invited for a distinguished
    scholar and administrator to lead two distinct but closely
    associated programs at the College of Charleston. The Avery
    Research Center for African American History and Culture, an
    archives and museum established seven years ago, functions to
    preserve and make public the heritage of the African
    Americans of the Low Country of South Carolina. The purpose
    of the Research Center is accomplished through continuing
    collection development, conferences, forums, exhibits and
    community outreach. The main focus of the African American
    Studies Program, established in 1992, is an undergraduate
    minor in African American Studies. The College of Charleston,
    the 13th oldest college in America, has approximately 9000
    students and 300 faculty members. Charleston and the Low
    Country of South Carolina remain the focus of national and
    international study concerning the history and culture of
    African Americans.

    As the Director of the Avery Research Center, the
    administrator reports to the Dean of Libraries and is
    responsible for the day-to-day operations of the Research
    Center, including supervision of four staff members; the
    development, preservation and processing of archival
    collections; museum education and public programs; and fund
    raising and grant writing. As the Director of the African
    American Studies Program, the faculty member reports to the
    Dean of Humanities and Social Sciences and is responsible for
    curricular planning and staffing in African American Studies.
    The Director administers the program budget and teaches in
    the program.

    Applicants must have appropriate graduate degrees for an
    appointment in an academic department of the College of
    Charleston. Specialty area is open although evidence of
    scholarship, teaching or other work experience in African
    American studies is required. The review of applications will
    begin on September 1, 1993, although applications will
    continue to be received until the position is filled. An
    appointment may be made as early as January 1, 1994. Rank and
    salary are open. Salary from $50,000. Please send the names
    of three references and a curriculum vitae to Dr. David
    Cohen, Dean of Libraries, College of Charleston, Charleston,
    SC 29424.
 2. American Legal History   Federal Judicial Center DC
    History: American Legal History. The Federal Judicial
    History Office of the Federal Judicial Center has an opening
    for an Associate Historian. The Office provides historical
    services to the judicial branch, the academic community, and
    the public. Responsibilities include producing research and
    reference tools and may involve consulting on archival
    issues or conducting oral history interviews.
         Qualifications: Ph.D. in American legal or
    constitutional history. Legal training, oral history and
    archival experience are highly desirable. Applicants should
    also possess knowledge of the history of the federal court
    system, familiarity with computerized data base,
    demonstrated oral and writing skills; evidence of successful
    scholarly publication; and experience in collaborative
    scholarly research efforts. Salary range to $55,000
    depending upon demonstrated qualifications and experience.
    Civil Service rating is not required. All federal government
    benefits are applicable. To apply, send your resume with
    cover letter highlighting relevant experience and
    qualifications to: Federal Judicial Center, Attention:
    Personnel Office (Ann#93-15), One Columbus Circle, N.E.,
    Washington, D.C. 20002. Applications without cover letters
    will not be considered. Please include the names of three
    references. Review of applications is on going. Position
    will remain open until filled. EOE.
 3. European Social History    Ball State U   Indiana

    History: European Social History, Ball State University,
    Muncie, Indiana. The Department of History seeks to fill a
    tenure-track position in European Social History since 1500
    with specialties in one or more of the following areas:
    Women's History, Family History, Historical Demography,
    History of Science, History of Medicine. Teaching
    responsibility will include survey courses in Western
    Civilization and/or World Civilization in addition to
    specialty courses. Minimum Qualification: ABD in History
    with a major area in European Social History (degree must be
    completed by August 22, 1994). Preferred Qualifications:
    Ph.D. in History with a major area in European Social
    History; publications; teaching experience at the college or
    university level. Position begins fall semester 1994. Rank
    and salary are negotiable. Review of credentials will begin
    on November 1, 1993, and continue until the position is
       Send credentials to Dr. Raymond White, Social History Search
       Committee, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana
       47306-0480. Credentials must include current vitae, graduate
       transcript, and three letters of recommendation. Ball State
       University is an Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action
       Employer and is strongly and actively committed to diversity
       within its community.
 4. General History Utah Valley State College

    History: Instructor. Tenure track position available at Utah
    Valley State College in Orem, Utah. Requires an earned
    master's (a doctorate preferred) in Ancient, Medieval and
    Modern World Civilization with specialization in one or more
    of the following: Latin America, Middle Eastern African or
    Asian History, History of Science, and two years' teaching
    experience in a college or university. Screening begins
    20, 1993. Position will remain open until a candidate is
    found. For application and information, contact Personnel
    Services, 801/222-8000, extension 8207. UVSC is an accredited
    college serving 10,000 students. We especially encourage
    women and minorities to apply. AA/EOE.
 5. History Horry-Georgetown Technical College So Carolina


    The College is a dynamic and progressive comprehensive
    two-year community/technical college located ten miles from
    Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Myrtle Beach is the center of
    South Carolina's ``Grand Strand'', a 60-mile stretch of
    beaches extending between the North Carolina border and
    historic Georgetown, South Carolina. The Grand Strand offers
    vacation, vitality and variety with its white sandy beaches,
    famous restaurants and 80 golf course. In the last few years,
    the Grand Strand has experienced unprecedented growth in
    tourism, population and economic diversity, revealing that
    this resort area is one of the fastest growing counties in
    the United States.
    The College is a state supported institution that is fully
    accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and
    Schools (SACS), offering 34 programs on the Associate Degree,
    Diploma and Certificate levels. The full-time student FTE is
    2,000 with a full-time faculty and staff and 180.

    Horry-Georgetown Technical College invites qualified
    applicants to apply for the following positions:

    History Instructor - Must have completed at least 18 graduate
    semester hours in history and hold a Master's Degree  OR hold
    the minimum of a Master's Degree with a major in history;
    Ph.D. preferred.

    Position available immediately. Salary commensurate with
    education and experience. Submit cover letter, resume and
    transcripts to: Personnel Office, Horry-Georgetown Technical
    College, Post Office Box 1966, Conway, SC 29526. Applications
    will be accepted until the positions are filled. EOE/AA.
 6. Latin American History   U of New Mexico

    History: Pending administration approval, the University of
    New Mexico Department of History seeks applicants for a
    tenure-track, entry-level position as Assistant Professor,
    specializing in Latin American History, beginning August 15,
    1994. Minimum qualifications: Ph.D. completed by August,
    1994; teaching experience and ability to offer courses on the
    history of Brazil; ability to advise and direct graduate
    student work. Desirable qualifications include research
    emphasis in social history and ability to teach courses on
    the Southern Cone. Send letter of interest, vita, written
    work, and three letters of reference to: Jonathan Porter,
    Chair, Department of History, University of New Mexico,
    Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1181. Consideration of
    applications will begin September 20, and close October 4,
    1993. EEO/AA.
 7. Library: Archivist  Vanderbilt U Medical Center   Tennessee

    Library: Vanderbilt Medical Center Library invites
    applications for the position of Archivist in its division of
    Collections Management. Reporting to the Special Collections
    Librarian, the appointee will plan, develop and manage the
    Medical Center Archives, utilizing the latest electronic
    technologies, and will assist patrons in their use. The
    position requires an ALA-accredited MLS or MA in history or
    acceptable equivalent, and at least four years of relevant
    professional experience. A strong history or science
    background and certification by the Academy of American
    Archivists are preferred. Experience with automation is
    highly desirable. Salary negotiable. For first consideration,
    send letter of application, resume and names of three
    references to
    T. Mark Hodges, Director, Medical Center Library, Vanderbilt
    University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2340, by 31 August
    1993. Call 1-800-288-0110 for more information. AA/EEO
 8. Library: Special Collections Curator   Penn St U Harrisburg

    Library: Special Collections Curator. Pennsylvania State
    University Harrisburg is seeking an experienced,
    service-oriented librarian or archivist to organize, manage,
    preserve, and develop the Alice Marshall Women's History
    Collection and other special collections which may be acquired
    in the near future. The Curator may also participate in the
    provision of general reference service. Responsibilities:
    Develop policies and procedures for acquisition, arrangement
    and description, reference and access, and preservation of
    special collections; develop donor, patron and colleague
    relationships; promote collections to students, scholars, and
    other constituencies through reference service lectures and
    presentation, publications and exhibits; initiate MARC-AMC
    cataloging; secure grants and solicit other outside support;
    select, train, supervise and evaluate personnel; plan for
    future physical facilities, staffing, and other needs; provide
    general reference service. Qualifications: MLS from
    ALA-accredited program or a master's degree in history or
    related area; archival coursework and experience in an
    archives or manuscript repository; demonstrated archival
    management, communication and interpersonal skills, ability to
    direct the work of staff and promote special collections
    programs effectively; experience or familiarity with
    manuscript cataloging using the MARC-AMC format; familiarity
    with appropriate database management and word processing
    software. Preferred: Background or interest in American
    history or women's studies, significant experience with donor
    relations, fund-raising and grant writing experience, evidence
    of professional and scholarly activity. Salary and rank:
    Dependent on qualifications, minimum $29,000. Benefits include
    liberal vacation, excellent insurance packages, state or
    TIAA/CREF retirement options, and educational privileges.
    Formal review of applications will begin September 20, 1993
    but applications will be accepted until the position is
    filled. Applicants should submit letter of application,
    resume, and names, addresses and phone numbers of at least
    three references to  Chair, Special Collections Curator Search
    Committee, c/o Human Resources Office, Box CHE, Penn State
    Harrisburg, 777 West Harrisburg Pike, Middletown, Pennsylvania
    17057-4898. Affirmative Action, Equal Opportunity Employer.
    Women and Minorities Encouraged to Apply.
 9. Modern European History   Augsburg College   Minnesota
       MODERN EUROPE. The Department of History, Augsburg College,
       Minneapolis, seeks candidates for a tenure-track appointment
       at the assistant professor level beginning September 1994.
       Preferred specialty in social and/or intellectual history.
       Desirable second field in British history. Teaching
       responsibilities include Western Civ survey, upper division
       courses in specialty, and senior research seminar. These
       duties include some Weekend College assignments. Ph.D. and
       evidence of teaching excellence required. Salary range in
       high $20,000s. Excellent benefits package. Send letter of
       application, c.v., and three current letters of
       recommendation to: Personnel Department, Augsburg College,
       2211 Riverside Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55454. AA/EOE.
       Qualified persons of color and women are strongly encouraged
       to apply. Deadline: 30 November 1993.
10. Political Science-History Georgia Military College

    Political Science/History: Instructor/Assistant Professor.
    Full-time, nine-month renewable contract. Teach American
    Government and history and world history survey courses.
    Minimum qualifications: Ph.D. preferred. If M.A. degree, at
    least 18 graduate hours in Political Science and 18 graduate
    hours in History required. Deadline for applying: August 16,
    1993. Position available September 1993. Send resume, three
    references and college transcripts to Personnel Office,
    Georgia Military College, 201 East Greene Street,
    Milledgeville, Georgia 31061. AA/EOE.
11. Publications Director Missouri Historical Society

    Publications: Director of Publications. The Missouri
    Historical Society seeks a highly motivated professional to
    direct its publications program. This senior level staff
    position will oversee the Missouri Historical Society Press
    and the Society's quarterly magazine, Gateway Heritage. The
    individual will supervise a staff of four including the book
    editor, the magazine editor, a copy editor, and an office
    administrator as well as occasional research interns. The
    director of publications will be responsible for soliciting
    and reviewing proposals and manuscripts for the newly
    established Missouri Historical Society Press, developing
    financial plans for the press and negotiating necessary
    contracts. The Press, which publishes three to four books
    annually, was created to publish books on St. Louis and
    Missouri themes, exhibition and special catalogues, reprints
    of selected monographs and annotated archival material. The
    individual will also be responsible for soliciting articles
    for Gateway Heritage by attending history conferences and
    networking with historians and academics. The successful
    candidate will have strong management and interpersonal
    skills, experience in project management, and proven
    financial planning and budget administration experience in
    the publications field. Individual should also have an
    awareness and broad interest in history. The person hired
    will work with both traditional and non-traditional
    historians. Competitive salary commensurate with experience.
    The candidate should also have a degree in history,
    anthropology, or a related field with an MA and/or Ph.D.
    preferred. Excellent interpersonal skills are necessary as is
    five or more years of related experience with increasing
    administrative responsibilities. Immediate opening. Please
    submit a letter of application and resume to Madge Buchanan,
    Human Resources, Missouri Historical Society, P.O. Box 11940,
    St. Louis, Missouri 63112-0040. An Equal Opportunity
12. Race -- Ethnic Studies Program Director U of Redlands
    State: California                  search reopened

    The University of Redlands seeks an energetic teacher-scholar
    to provide new vision and dynamic leadership to its
    interdisciplinary Race and Ethnic Studies Program. Standard
    teaching load is three courses per semester. The Director
    teach two-thirds time, with one-third released time for
    administrative duties. The latter will include developing and
    expanding course offerings in the Program and coordinating
    Program-related activities with other relevant areas of the

    Rank and Salary: Assistant or Associate Professor;
    tenure-track. Salary is competitive and commensurate with
    Qualifications: Ph.D., demonstrated teaching excellence, and
    commitment to undergraduate liberal education. The successful
    candidate must also possess the personal and administrative
    skills necessary to work well with colleagues across the
    university. Although not a necessary condition, relevant
    administrative, curriculum, or program development experience
    would be extremely helpful.

    Primary field of specialization: open. However, candidates in
    African-American Studies, Asian-American Studies,
    Chicano/Chicana Studies, Economics, English, History,
    Latino/Latina Studies, Modern Languages, Native American
    Studies, Philosophy, Sociology, or Women's Studies are
    particularly encouraged to apply. Candidates specializing in
    area studies should designate a departmental affiliation.

    Applications should include

    curriculum vitae and a statement of interest indicating
    particular qualifications for this position. Candidates
    should arrange to send graduate placement dossier including
    at least three letters of recommendation. Address
    applications and inquiries to:
    Robert Hudspeth; Chair, English Department;
    University of Redlands; 1200 E. Colton Ave.; Redlands, CA
    92373-0999. Consideration of applications will begin
    September 15, 1993 and will continue until the position is
    filled. The University of Redlands is an Equal Opportunity
    Employer. Women and members of minority groups are especially
    encouraged to apply even if their career paths are
    The University of Redlands is a private, selective, liberal
    arts university enrolling approximately 1500 undergraduates
    in the College of Arts and Sciences. Located in a region of
    growing ethnic and cultural diversity 65 miles east of Los
    Angeles, the University seeks to create a multicultural
    community that encourages interdisciplinary and
    cross-cultural studies. The University's Alfred North
    Whitehead Center enrolls approximately 2200 adult learners
    pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees. Both programs
    emphasize liberal education as the foundation of more
    specialized programs of study.
13. American History, 20c Roosevelt University   Illinois



    Roosevelt University is an independent metropolitan
    university with the main campus in downtown Chicago and a
    growing branch campus in suburban Arlington Heights,
    Illinois. The University is engaged in a capital campaign -
    the Roosevelt University Renaissance - which includes plans
    for significant expansion and development of the branch
    campus. Five colleges offer bachelor's and master's degree to
    over 6,300 full-time and part-time students. Teaching load
    for all positions is 7 courses during 2 semesters. The
    University invites applicants for the following positions:

    U.S. History: tenure track, assistant professor level,
    beginning either January or August 1994. Teaching generalist
    needed with primary field in twentieth century (with ability
    to teach period of FDR). Ability to teach colonial history
    would be an advantage. Teaching experience and publications
    desirable. Teaching responsibilities will be primarily at our
    suburban campus.

    For the history position, send curriculum vitae, letter
    outlining professional interests, three letters of
    recommendation, and graduate school transcript by October 1,
    1993 to: Dennis Temple, Director, School of Liberal Studies,
    Roosevelt University, 430 S. Michigan Avenue, Chicago,
    Illinois 60605.

    Screening of applicants will begin immediately and continue
    until a successful candidate has been identified.

    Roosevelt University is an Equal Opportunity,
    Affirmative Action Employer
    ********end of listings August 4, 1993 *********************
Date:         Thu, 5 Aug 1993 16:55:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re:  Death Camps in Poland

[Date: Thu, 5 Aug 1993 16:14:30 -0400 (EDT)
[From: Cecelia A Clancy 
[Subject: re: Death Camps in Poland
[Sender: Cecelia A Clancy 
[To: Holocaust List 

> [Date: Tue, 03 Aug 1993 23:49:39 +0000 (WET)
> [From:
> [Subject: Re: death camps in Poland
> [To:
> There is also no solid basis for the argument that the Germans (sic)
> chose Poland, as the site for the establishment of the death camps
> because the Poles were known for their anti-Semitism and therefore
> could be counted on for collaboration in the process of the destruction
> of the Jews.

In this vein, may I say that in a survivor tape that I am now
transcribing as part of an oral history project, the survivor, whose
first name is Alexander, goes off at one point onto a tangent of how
bad the Poles he had contact with while growing up in eastern Europe
were had behaved towards him and other Jews.    Unfortunately, he does
not make it clear that he meant just those certain Poles.     He just
says "the Poles are" this and "the Poles are" that.      He not only
broadbrushes ALL of the Poles so  negatively but even always uses
the present tense!

The things Alex says in the tape about what "the Poles are" are so bad
that I do not want to repeat them here.     But yet, I am supposed to
transcribe that passage and the results will go into a computer database
maintained by the new Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C. and thereafter
be publicly accessible.

I have not brought this problem up to the local Pittsburgh people for
whom I am directly transcribing the tape.     They, I fear, will just
say, "Oh, that does not matter.    You have to understand him."

Yeah, *I* understand Alexander, alright, but I ALSO understand certain
NON-Jewish people out in the public who feel moderately or severely
distressed by the Holocaust in a personal way, who will, with great
difficulty try to deal with the Holocaust in "the standard ways" (which
have been set up mostly by Jews and are therefore TAILORED to "fit" the
ways that many Jews have been impacted, but that very poorly "fit" the
ways non-Jews have been impacted.    Germans, Poles, and Ukrainians
are among the non-Jews most impacted that I have noticed.).

Yeah, so in the future some severly-affected Polish person in the future
attempts, with difficulty to negotiate his/her way through "standard ways"
that are even more difficult for him/her because they have been "designed"
totally neglecting the needs of Poles (and of Germans and Ukrainians),
is going to, with difficulty, manage to enter the National Holocaust
Museum's computer databases, only to be repulsed away to read the
virulent anti-Polish remarks of Alexander, never to again attempt to
deal with the Holocaust "the standard way" (and perhaps be then more
prone to consider dealing with it "the Revisionist way").

I am afraid that if I try to explain this to the local Pittsburgh
people with whom I am working, I am afraid they will say, "Oh, any
decent Pole will 'just realize'.     Any one who doesn't is just
some anti-Semite anyway with no sensitivity for the feelings of
Jews, so let that person be repulsed away."

Then I will try to explain, "No, it is you Jews who are the ones
lacking sensitivity.    You expect German me and Polish Stan
and Ukrainian Cyril to ever bow down in homage to Jewish feelings
while you Jews chronically could care less about OUR feelings.
I am tried of laboring under such chronic one-way circumstances.
Since the Museum to whose database my transcript will go to
has as its mission statement to REACH OUT to the PUBLIC (not just
to reach out to the Jew for purposes of fulfilling some needs WITHIN
the Jewish community, AND since the Museum being run with our federal
tax dollars by a Commission appointed by the President and is therefore
SUPPOSED to be serving ALL Americans, not just Jewish ones, I feel
that it should not be made a vehicle for the public dissemination
of anti-Polish bigotry."

I am afraid that then we will get into a fight.

I can try contacting Alexander, who is local, and ask him to qualify
his remarks and then I can include that qualification as a transcriber's
comment, but what if Alexander will not qualify them, then what?    What
if Alex really DOES hate all Poles for all time - even the many Poles
who are born and raised here in Pittsburgh?      At another point in
the tape and on a topic not relating to Poles, Alex said, "In order
to take wind out of the sails of future Revisionists, ...."     Well,
Alex does not realize that his terrible anti-Polish remarks are
putting considerable wind into the sails of "future Revisionists"
(according to HIS definition of "Revisionist", which is narrower
than mine).     Willis Carto (and future Cartos) would have a
propagandistic field day with those remarks if he should ever learn
of them.     This is an important part of my reluctance to publicly
repeat those remarks verbatim here in this mailing list.

I understand that interviewer SHOULD have gotten a qualification, but
she was in such single-minded pursuit of "information to accuse people
of war crimes" that she seemed to care about nothing else.      At several
points during the interview, for example, Alexander would be trying his
best to say things of very great general historical, sociological, and
psychological value (and saying these things with some difficulty, for
these kinds of things are often hard for people who have "been through it"
to say).     The interviewer, instead of doing her best to make it easier
for Alex to get through that kinds of material, would keep interrupting him
things like "What's his name?!?!" or would cut him off from saying, in
general ways, "what it was like" and redirect him by saying, "Tell us
anything you know that can be used to accuse people of war crimes."
When Alex could not or would not provide any of that kind of information,
the interviewer, instead of returning to the topic that Alex had been
previously trying to lead up to, would then "close" that topic by posing
to Alex a question on an entirely different topic.     This process repeats
over and over during the interview, which lasted approximately two hours.

It goes without saying that I believe that *I* could have done a far
better interview myself.

But does anybody have any suggestions on how I can best handle this

-- Thanks,
-- Cecelia

Cecelia Mu"llermeder     (412) 441-7980
P.O. Box 71222 
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
USA                                     Standard disclaimers.
Date:         Fri, 6 Aug 1993 09:14:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Re: Demjanjuk

[From: "Shaw, Stanford         HISTORY"
[Subject: Re: Demjanjuk
[Date: Thu, 05 Aug 93 15:24:00 PDT

To admit this person to the United States would be a travesty of justice and
an outrage against all decent people.
Date:         Fri, 6 Aug 1993 09:18:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      death camps in Poland and German Responsibility

[Date: Thu, 5 Aug 1993 17:59:41 -0400 (EDT)
[From: Eugene Levine 
[Sender: Eugene Levine 
[Subject: death camps in Poland and German Responsibility
[Cc: Gene Levine 

As will be apparent, I am deeply offended by the posting from Cecilia
Muller, and here offer my unvarnished $.02 worth in response. I
inadvertently deleted her message, so my quotations will be in the best
format I can manage, with apologies to all.


Cecilia Muller asks 'And when is anybody going to write "Unequal Victims.
Germans and Jews"?' I don't know what was intended here, but I cannot
begin to understand how the Germans can be seen as victims
in the context of WWII or the Shoah. It was, indeed, the Germans
who started the war, overran the neutrals, created the death camps and the
concentration camps who, all but invented the mass bombings of civilian
targets (though we all partake of the guilt for that particular horror) and
in general did everything they could to make themselves not merely masters
and overlords of Europe, but the destroyers of civilization (There is a
fine discussion of this idea in Paul Johnson's 'Modern Times').

Yes, guilt belongs to individuals, but yes it also belongs to corporate
entitities (to states and countries and nations).

Was it just the NAZIS who did this, or was it 'the Germans'? Well, I submit
that saying it was the Germans is entirely correct. I am not pointing the
finger at any individual German without specific proof of wrong doing,
but there is such a thing as corporate responsibility, and I maintain that
the German nation can be held responsible for its actions as a nation.

It *was* the German nation, the German polity, who
declared war on the world, who elevated kultur over civilization. It *was*
the German political system which selected Hitler, it *was* the German
political, economic and military leadership which annointed him and
cheered him and followed him as "Fuhrer."

I still remember with some bitterness the angry German who
asked during Reagan's visit to Bitburg. "How much longer must we bear this
criticism?" (or words to that effect). He asked this on camera during a
protest against the visit. Hitler's sentiments came straight to my mind:
no matter how it turns out, he opined, the world will forget in 50 years.

And the crowds, the wildly enthusiastic, flag-waving, screaming, fainting,
torch carrying crowds of Germans we still see in the news reels of the
day: who were these people, if not Germans.

Were there German opponents to NAZI policy? yes, and when the question was
asked on this list I responded with a the two examples I knew of. But
these were the exceptions which illustrated the rule. By and large the
evidence is overwhelming that until the military catastrophes of
1942 and forward, the war and the regime were supported by the Nazis.

And what of the Germans who claimed they were only
following orders, and the Germans who had to be forced to walk through the
camps in their midst? the Germans who claimed to know nothing? I
respectfully suggest that it is the Germans as a whole who must bear
responsibility for the Shoah. This is not meant as an excuse for "German
bashing" or rudeness to our neigghbors (either within the United States or
on a global scale). It is just an insistence that societies must bear
responsibility for their actions.

We US citizens must bear responsibility for our part in African
slavery and the cultural genocide of the native peoples of this
hemisphere. None of us on the net played any direct role in either, but
both can be considered "American" or more correctly "U.S." sins for which
our country, society, culture, nation can -- and should -- be held

The invasion of Granada, the war against the contras, the "Gulf War" --
each of these was a United States activity, not a Republican or Democrat
or liberal or conservative activity. I didn't carry a gun, but I benefit
from the results, and whether I supported or opposed each, they were
carried out in my name.

I cannot agree that it was not the Germans who invented, designed
and implemented the holocaust. To say it more positively: I feel strongly
that it specifically was the Germans who did this, that it is the German
political entity, the German political culture of the time that did the
horrors we collectively call the holocaust.

Cecilia Muller's sarcastic comment: 'Oh, so *I* chose Poland as the
site..." is, in this context, bizarre. No one accused Cecilia
Muller, and no one who is familiar with the facts can accuse anyone but the
Germans of the time of particular bad acts. But to deny that it was
Germany (and the Germans) who worked this sin on humanity is not
acceptable to me.

Should the world have responded better? Of course. But is the world to
blame? not as directly as the perpetrators. Then as now (witness the
Balkans) the world does a poor job of policing itself.

If it was not the Germans who were to blame, exactly who does Cecilia
Muller feel should be blamed? Certainly not, I hope, the innocent victims:
the Jews and Gypsies and homosexuals and mentally ill and enemies of the
state and Poles and Russians and Slavs and Communists.

If the Germans were not responsible, just exactly who was? No one?

Cecilia Muller asks "What if you had no Hillel Foundation or ADL to go to
complain {about offensive ethnic comments]?" Fair question, but it misses
the point -- these are, in my opinion, fair comments on the holocaust. It
happened. It was a horror. Germany did it. Many suffered death, torture,
economic loss, disease, starvation. Specifically because of the action s
of the Germans in the Forties. Were there accomplices? Yes, but this was a
German war fought for German purposes, which, had the Allies lost it,
would have ushered in a period of darkness without compare. How can the
German responsibility for this be denied?

If Cecilia Muller means she has no protection from unfair, unthinking,
unfeeling, generalized prejudice against her person, I am on her side in
resisting  it. But if she includes in her resentment and anger a feeling
that laying the blame for WWII and the holocaust at Germany's feeet
represents a distortion of the historical record I can do no more than
sympathize with her plight as a human being, and unequivocally state my
belief that she is wrong.

She states "I have every right to speak up against the use of the word
'German' in contexts where the words 'Nazi' or 'SS' would be far more
appropriate." I agree that she has every right so to do; after all, this
*is* the United States and not Nazi Germany. But I do not agree that the
uses she objects to fit into those categories. Regardless, she certainly
*does* have the right to speak out, and hope she (and others who feel as
she does) will continue to speak out.

As for "let's be careful about how we throw around words like 'German',
'Pole', 'Ukrainian', etc.": You bet! I agree one hundred percent. After
all, it was a failure to be careful with ethnic generalization that led to
the holocaust in the first place.

Gene Levine
Date:         Fri, 6 Aug 1993 09:20:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re: Death Camps in Poland

[Date: Thu, 5 Aug 93 14:01:06 HST
[From: "R. B. Schmerl" 
[To: Holocaust List 
[Subject: re: Death Camps in Poland

Ms. Mu"llermeder's dilemma seems to me self-imposed.  If I understand her
correctly, her job is to transcribe an interview conducted with a survivor
of the Holocaust. She should, it seems to me, do that job meticulously,
accurately, and as rapidly as she can.  If she feels that, for whatever
reason, she should not do that job, then she should tell her employer
that she cannot do it and find something more to her liking.  But certainly
a transcriber's job does not include editing the transcript, re-inter-
viewing the subject, or interposing her own concerns between what the
subject actually said (in response to never mind how biased the questions!)
and what the transcript will show.  All that seems obvious.

What is not obvious is why Ms. Mu"llermeder appears to think that she is
being helpful to anyone, Jew or Gentile, by asking how she can suppress
or censor or delete the subject's animus toward Poles from his remarks.
If the issue is truth, and it ought to be, then it is apparent that his
hatred of Poles (whatever it is based on) is part of the man, and it
seems ironic that Ms. Mu"llermeder wishes to choose what part of him is
to survive in the transcript she is preparing.  Whether the subject's
memories are accurate or are paranoid fantasies, whether his hatred is
humanly understandable or totally outrageous, whether recording those
memories will make some Gentiles angry or sad and thus engender still
more anti-Semitism--all this is beside the point, which is simply to
allow the Holocaust's survivors to tell their stories as best they can.
If the interviewer was indeed as biased, inept, and untrained as Ms.
Mu"llermeder indicates, then Ms. Mu"llermeder should prepare an article
or a review or a letter to an editor showing these biases and lack of
skills, to coincide, perhaps, with the publication of the transcript.
But it is very late in the game to suggest that yet another Jew should
be muzzled for fear of making the Gentiles angry.
Date:         Fri, 6 Aug 1993 09:25:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Cecilia's lament

[Date: Thu, 5 Aug 1993 20:43:52 CDT
[From: "Richard S. Levy  " 
[Subject: Cecilia's lament

I've often wondered if it serves any useful purpose to publicize the
Holocaust, make Jews and non-Jews alike confront it, teach it to
highschool children, make it the subject of museums.  Cecilia's lament
just serves to intensify my doubts about the utility of such ventures.
On my reader list today were three complaints from various ethnic groups
about their alleged treatment at the hands of the Jews.  Cecilia wants
us to design a Holocaust she can be comfortable with and accuses Jews of
having done this (with public money) for themselves and to fill others
with guilt, sympathy, etc. for doubtful purposes.  I despair of
convincing people like Cecilia of anything, let alone that the Holocaust
should make no one feel good.  Jews have not "designed" a response to
the Holocaust.  There is no single response, there is no board of
directors or secret government of Jews.  Jews have confronted their
catastrophe and written about it a great, great deal because it very
obviously impacts on their senses of self, and because others, including
the perpetrators, remained silent for so long.  If Cecilia and those
like her are unhappy with Jewish responses, they are invited to fashion
their own rather than whining about imaginary conspiracies to deny them
their due.  They need not take the money of organizations they have deep
animosities toward; they need not threaten us with going over to the
Revisionists (unless what?)
Date:         Fri, 6 Aug 1993 12:36:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re: Unequal Victims

[Date: Fri, 06 Aug 1993 00:59:29 EDT
[From: BERMAN 
[Subject: RE: re: Unequal Victims


        I understand how you feel about the generalization "germans" etc...
but I feel no remorse. Canadians did not invade Poland.Germans did. Canadians
did not humbly allow their fledgeling democracy to turn into a dictatorship.
Germans did. The US did not plan out extermination of the Jews. Germans did.
Canadians did not sell a family for a loaf of bread or pound of sugar. Germans,
Poles, Ukrainians, etc.. did.

        Yes, Canada is currently THE leading exported of anti-Jewish hate
propaganda (concerning the holocaust). We have a justice system that can't
always keep racists in Jail. I feel ashamed that my country can allow this.
Yes I take partial responsibility, and I do my utmost to make Canada what I
want it to be.

        So you see, Germany is and was a product of the people in it. I can
without hesitation blame the Germans of the past for the holocaust, as I
blame them now for their weakness during the current unrest. As I blame the
Canadians (including myself) and Americans and most of the world for our
wimpishness with respect to the wars in Former Yugoslavia.

Date:         Fri, 6 Aug 1993 14:53:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Re: Unequal Victims

[Date: Fri, 06 Aug 1993 03:35:30 -0500 (EST)
[Subject: Re: Unequal Victims

Cecelia - your post is disgusting and way too long. I am very interested
in German and American German responses to the Holocaust but the way you
have presented your "case" (this is not a court by the way) is way out of
line on every level.

First of all, the "Jews" did not crucify Jesus.
That the Irgun is Jewish, no one denies, least of all the Jews.
The Nazis were German, whether you like it or not.

I wish you could simply share your responses and issues in response to the
Holocaust itself - instead of coming on in such an hostile way. I have
read numerous posts of yours on alt.revisionism and I have found some of them
very intersting - in particular your description of reaching some kind of
a breaking point in watching  a film. But this last post of yours is
offensive garbage.

Lucia Ruedenberg
New York University
Dept. of Performance Studies
Email: ruednbrg@ACFcluster.NYU.EDU
Date:         Fri, 6 Aug 1993 14:54:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      films

[Date:         Fri, 06 Aug 93 09:37:13 CDT
[From: Jerry Rosenberg 
[Subject:      films
[To: Holocaust Discussion List 

I am going to list a number of videos, some are feature films, but most are
documentories. They cover a wide range of Holocaust related topics.
JEW are Nazi propaganda films as is TRIUMPH OF THE WILL. Documentories
include; THE NAZI CONNECTION(Nazi scientists at the Huntsville,Al rocket
entire series on the European theatre is excellent, MUNICH, THE EAGLES NEST,
WAR(a series like world at war, narrated by Burt Lancaster and concerning the
SOBIBOR, LEBENSBORN. I will post additional sources as I can identify them.
I hope this list helps. jerry
Date:         Mon, 9 Aug 1993 09:18:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re: films

[Date:         Sun, 8 Aug 93 20:11 CDT
[From: George M. Kren (History, Kansas State U) 
[Subject:      Re: films

I teach a Holocaust course and like to use videos.  Your list was helpful--
do you have sources for rental and/or purchase of videos?  Many thanks~ GMK
Date:         Mon, 9 Aug 1993 09:32:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re:  Films

[Date: Sat, 07 Aug 1993 01:13:43 EDT
[From: BERMAN 
[Subject: RE: films

I was reading through the list and noticed NIGHT AND FOG. The original
(French) title of the movie is I believe NUIT ET BROUILLARD. The movie
is a very powerful one. Not for the weak of stomach. It contains a lot of
footage that moved me a great deal. I have grown up learning about the
Holocaust, but I was still shaken by it. I recommend  it highly, but
it certainly is not casual viewing.

Date:         Mon, 9 Aug 1993 10:37:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re: Death Camps in Poland

[Date: Sun, 8 Aug 1993 09:24:34 -0400 (EDT)
[From: Cecelia A Clancy 
[Subject: re: Death Camps in Poland
[To: Holocaust List 

> [Date: Thu, 5 Aug 93 14:01:06 HST
> [From: "R. B. Schmerl" 
> [To: Holocaust List 
> [Subject: re: Death Camps in Poland

> If she feels that, for whatever
> reason, she should not do that job, then she should tell her employer
> that she cannot do it and find something more to her liking.

It is not employment.    It is volunteer.    I do not HAVE to
be involved in preserving survivor testimony for the future.

This "is to my liking" in the sense that I believe that it is
important and that I feel a sort of, "loyalty" to the survivors.
It is not to my liking in the sense that the whole thing needs
done in the first place (that is, I wish that these people's
lives had never been disrupted in the first place) and is also
not to my liking in the sense that there is such a big gap in
the world of the survivor and the world of most people who have
lead entirely "normal" lives, that is, people who have not suffered
from some traumatic event outside the realm of ordinary human

So much of the meaning of so many of the things that the survivors
say (or AVOID saying, or try to approach unsuccessfully) gets lost
somewhere between the eardrums and the brains of most non-survivors.
In order to bridge this gap, special interpretation is needed and
very carefully trained interviewers are needed.     This is not
censorship or deletion or alteration like retouching a photograph,
but rather, it is a process of achieving greater resolution like
computer enhancing a photograph.

I have, because a series of "lucky" and at times rather unlikely events,
found a way across the gap.     Yet, I remember what it was like
BEFORE I even knew the gap was EVEN THERE - let alone realize how
vast it was.     (Knowing of the gap, but not being able to cross it
would result in a listener being confused by survivor testimony - even
to the point of considering it odd.    Reitlinger does this in the
introduction to the first edition to his _The Final Solution_ when he
describes survivor testimony as strange and bizarre and full of
"meaningless" floridisms.      But not knowing that a gap IS EVEN THERE
will  result in total misinterpretations.     For example, Alex gets some
information mixed up as he tries to recall some things.    If I had
heard this same tape BEFORE I knew that there even WAS a gap, I would
have misinterpreted this mixup as "evidence" that he either has too
poor a memory to be considered "a reliable witness" or else he is
"fabricating".     But I know why he REALLY gets things confused at
one point, and I will explain those things in transcribers comments.)

I can now-a-days listen to the tape and understand what Alex REALLY
means and is REALLY trying to say, but I can also rerun his words in my
mind again, but the second time evaluating them the way I would have
evaluated them just five years ago.     The difference is staggering.

> But certainly
> a transcriber's job does not include editing the transcript,
> re-interviewing the subject, or interposing her own concerns
> between what the subject actually said (in response to never
> mind how biased the questions!) and what the transcript will show.
> All that seems obvious.

It is not obvious.     If I do not interpose my concerns via transcribers
comments, then much of the meaning will be lost not only for the reasons
I stated above, but also there is (as in all speech) a lot of meaning
contained in the tone and inflections of voice and in pause patterns that
cannot be transmitted via written English.     The meaning of these can
be preserved only by my taking an active role.      I do not know if the
tapes in our project will be saved or copied once the transcripts are
done.     Not knowing, I have to assume they will be erased or else will
not be available to everybody.      I have to write my transcriber's
comments as if all preservation of meaning and all bridging of gaps
depended on me.      If it winds up not depending all on me, then fine,
but I will not let parts of a primary historical source be lost if it
does.     A raw transcript with no transcriber's comments will NOT
show what the subject actually said.     A sentence spoken by the human
voice carries a lot more information and meaning than a corresponding set
of ASCII character stings.     (For Natural Language Processing people
and Artificial Intelligence people, BTW, this is the key, IMHO, to solving
the ambiguity problems.     Supplement the ASCII character set with additional
characters which mark tone, duration, glottal stops, pause durations,
volume, and "slides" between words, then put these with the standard ASCII
characters, I think we might find the ambiguity problems will be mostly

So, in the future, such an advanced NLP system will exist, but it does
not today.     So I must make comments if I am to do the job to my
satisfaction.    Also, I say that NO audiotape or videotape should be
erased.     Multimedia techniques are getting better, cheaper, and
easier to use.     The tapes should all be saved for use in future
technical innovations.     But I do not know if they will be saved, so
I have to add comments as if it all depended on me.

> ... by asking how she can suppress
> or censor or delete the subject's animus toward Poles from his remarks.

It is enhancement, not deletion.     And, in my ability to bridge the
gap between survivor and non-survivor and in hearing Alex's voice
inflections and pause patterns lead me to strongly believe that
animus toward Poles is NOT what he is REALLY getting at.     But a
plain transcript without transcriber comment would most certainly
give that impression and if the eventual listener will ever be a
Polish person moderately-to-severely affected by the Holocaust, he or
she will, at least, not want to ever consult survivor testimony again and
will, at worst, feel so revolted that in his or her mind, the survivors
will become a bunch of liars and perpetrators of hate for their own malicious
ends.     Now, THIS is not the truth, but a plain transcript would
communicate precisely that UNTRUTH to some people.     If I had read
those words BEFORE I knew how to bridge the gap and if Alex had been
talking about Germans instead of Poles, then I might have been so
revolted that I might have written out a check to Carto's IHReview
right then and there.      It is these kinds of effects I am trying
to prevent.     I am also trying to "Carto-proof" it by anticipating
how Carto would try to INTENTIONALLY twist and distort what Alex REALLY
meant and to them include transcribers comments specifically designed
to make this harder for Carto to succeed at doing.

> If the issue is truth, and it ought to be, then it is apparent that his
> hatred of Poles (whatever it is based on) is part of the man,

It is NOT part of Alex!    He does NOT hate all of the Poles.

> and it
> seems ironic that Ms. Mu"llermeder wishes to choose what part
> of him is
> to survive in the transcript she is preparing.

I want ALL of him to survive in the transcript.

> If the interviewer was indeed as biased, inept, and untrained as Ms.
> Mu"llermeder indicates,

Trouble is, she probably HAD been "trained", but trained in the
techniques of ordinary oral history research, the kind one might
do to, say, learn of the farming techniques of the Germans who
first settled the valley of the Des Moines River from their now-aged
grandchildren.      But interviewing a person who had been through
very difficult and traumatic events that are out of the range of
ordinary human experience, such as Auschwitz and its aftermath, must
be done with far greater sensitivity and skill than what is needed to
ask Fred Bauer of Des Moine how his Grampa would decide when to plant
the corn and how his Gramma would put up the string beans and make
pickles.    In the same way, oral history interviewers of the future
would have to be sensitive and skilled if interviewing Fred Bauer about
the Flood of 1993 and its aftermath.

So all this lack of sensitivity and skill frustrated me as I listened.
It also seemed to me that the interviewer considered survivor testimony
as extraneous for purposes of historical and psychosocial research.
It seemed that her prime motivation for participating in our oral history
project was in order to gather "information to be used to accuse people
of being war criminals."      In doing so, she pushed Alex around, rather
that letting him say what he wanted to say at his own pace.     It is
certainly desirable for an interviewer to provide some sort of cohesiveness
to the overall interview, but she was providing not a structure for Alex
to build upon as he saw fit, but rather, as SHE saw fit.     SHE decided
that the historical and psychosocial information was "frivolous" and
would "yank" Alex away from discussing those and would "shove" him instead
towards "Nazi-hunting", upon which Alex did not want to dwell.

So I was frustrated also for Alex, because that "yanking" and "shoving"
made the interview more difficult for him than it would have otherwise
been.     These interviews and presentations survivors make are usually
very hard for them to make.     Some, such as Steve Fenves - a Civil
Engineering professor at CMU who specializes in computer analysis for
CE and who has one of the same big hobbies I have, learning all about
as many of the bridges Pittsburgh has ever had as we can - was once very
active in making presentations, now no longer does it because the process
is too emotionally wretching for him.      Dora Iwler, another local
survivor very active in making presentations, has told me that she
gets no sleep the night before she makes a presentation and gets no
sleep the night after.     And Dora's husband will not talk about it
to anybody - not even to other survivors.     Dora, Steve Fenves, and a
few other survivors all agree that making presentations and giving
interviews gets HARDER, not easier as one gets older.     I also know
for a fact that it is very hard for Mel Mermelstein (the person who sued
IHReview and who Leonard Nemoy played in the Ted Turner movie, _Never
Forget_) to be so publicly involved.    He is compelled to act so, but
would much rather not.    Yet, in Carto's IHReview materials, Mel is
presented as doing what he does just because he loves the publicity.

So I was so frustrated with the interviewer because I know she was making
the interview so much harder for Alex.      Listening to the portions of
the tape where Alex speaks of Europe and first settling in America are
far more tense than the part at the end where he speaks of going to
Carnegie Tech for Mechanical Engineering after getting settled in
Pittsburgh, graduating from there, working in ME, marrying and raising

Because of the difficulty that most survivors have in giving interviews
(I have met only one who finds it not at all difficult) and knowing
that it was difficult for Alex, I do not want to entirely redo the
interview (unless Alex wants to).     But I think that Alex feels that
he has done his due.     I do want to contact him to get clarifying
remarks, but just on the short section where he had made his remarks
on Poles.     *I* am confident that he was not REALLY devouring all
the Poles, but clarifying comments from him would be far more convincing
and would make far better "Carto-proofing" than my transcriber comments

> then Ms. Mu"llermeder should prepare an article
> or a review or a letter to an editor showing these biases and lack of
> skills, to coincide, perhaps, with the publication of the transcript.

I shall.    The comments themselves might be either interspersed or
grouped at the end.     I had already been planning to add at the
end some information of the cities, towns and villages he mentions,
and even on the local Pittsburgh things he mentions.      I was
also going to make a cross-reference to some things posted to this
list.     Remember the "Stedtl Help Needed" thread awhile back.
Remember the Yitzkor Book of Sambor mentioned there.     Well, it is
a small world folks, for Alex's father, Samuel, was born in Sambor.

Maybe I could ask questions here about other towns he mentions.
Maybe somebody has compiled Yitzkor Books for them too.    Idea.

I also plan to make comment on how perfectly relaxed he is at
the end when talking about normal life after getting settled in
Pittsburgh.     This, along with making just as much effort to
explain what "Carnegie Tech" is and what "Wylie Avenue" is and
what "McKeesport" is as I do to explain what Sambor is has as
its express purpose the goal of letting everybody know that Alex
is not just some Holocaust machine.    He is also a CMU alumnus
retired Mechanical Engineer who beams with pride of his son, who
is now a physician.      Alex is a human being just like the rest
of us.

This not only does justice to Alex, but helps to demystify
the Holocaust, which is all-too-mystified.     Auschwitz was a very
down-to-earth human place - not some kind of misty netherworld up
in the sky someplace.     This demystification, IMHO, will help
make the Holocaust more believable, more comprehensible, and
better enable us to most intelligently conceive of it, to conceptualize
it in down-to-earth realistic terms that we can understand and thus
allowing our normal reasoning powers to make it possible to comprehend
it in a normal way, which is essential to preventing future
holocaust-like events and to reducing both the denial and fascination the
overmystification of the Nazi Holocaust continues to arouse in some of us.
(This paragraph draws heavily from the ideas of Peter Hayes and of
Kenneth Seeskin, both of Northwestern University, as expressed in the
Introduction to _Lessons and Legacies_, a book that I find of ever
increasing help and value in the unraveling of the social aspects
of "the whole sorry mess".     Quaecumque sunt vera to them both and
also to my "twin" in Tech, from whom I get the "whole sorry mess"

> But it is very late in the game to suggest that yet another Jew should
> be muzzled for fear of making the Gentiles angry.

I'm NOT muzzling Alex, I'm trying to filter out the interference that
might keep a future reader from getting his intended message all
garbled and to keep Carto from firing up his jammer to INTENTIONALLY
cause interference.

And it is a very legitimate pursuit to make survivor testimony
as "Gentile-friendly" as possibly.     Much to this end can be
done without in the slightest way altering or deleting any of the
actual information the survivor wants to get across.     But if the
survivor's "teaching method" is unlikely to work well for certain
"students", then I see nothing wrong with me doing a little "TA-ing",
using my own "teaching methods" that I think might work better for
those certain "students".

Cecelia Mu"llermeder     (412) 441-7980
P.O. Box 71222   
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
USA                                       Standard disclaimers.
Date:         Mon, 9 Aug 1993 10:39:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Out Lament

[Date: Sun, 8 Aug 1993 13:12:01 -0400 (EDT)
[From: Cecelia A Clancy 
[Subject: Our Lament
[To: Holocaust List 

On Fri, 6 Aug 1993 wrote:

> [Date: Thu, 5 Aug 1993 20:43:52 CDT
> [From: "Richard S. Levy  " 
> [To: 
> [Subject: Cecilia's lament

This thread is a vote in favor of interactive computing in the
Humanities and Social Sciences.       My previous post was
greatly misunderstood by Richard Levy and thanks the nature of
our forum, I got immediate feedback that a misunderstanding
had occurred.

First of all, Richard, don't dispair, don't give up.    If working
in Holocaust Education and/or Memorial is important to you, keep
at that task.     I do not want to discourage you.

Also, I was in an impatient mood when I had made that post.    Certainly
this had predisposed me to using unclear wording.     Specificly, I
was in a certain type of impatient mood that I call "Ultrafrustration".
If you perceived hostile things in it, you might have interpreted them
as - to oversimplify things a bit - as you-know-what - I do not even want
to say it - but for sake of better clarity - I guess I should say it -
as - as -- as --- as anti-Semitism????      Again, oversimplifying things
a bit, let me reassure you that it way much more my way of trying to give
"hints" that I am frustrated today beyond my ability to endure this
Whole-A-Mess stuff (or, as my "twin" in Room 1643 Tech at NU, had put it
entirely independent of me, this "whole sorry mess" stuff.    So whatever
negativeness you saw in my previous post is better interpreted as massive
frustration than as anti-Semitism.

But even though I was trying to be careful to be "extra patient" as
I wrote it, signs of the Ultrafrustration I was in still barged through.
Today, I feel more "back to normal", with my level of patience at
about 85% percent as good as normal.      However, now I feel badly
that my Ultrafrustration that DID leak through has turned into
dismay, dispare, and a downhearted "why do we Jews even TRY" feeling
to sink into Rick.    Cecelia's Lament has now become Rick's Lament.

For this I am truly sorry.

But if this ever happens again, either in me or in another "proud
and stubborn" GA, maybe it would help to consider that the old
problem of Ultrafrustration is operating and interpret it that way
rather than as some kind of HARD-CORE anti-Semitism (which it certainly
is not).

But now, I hope to clarify the misunderstandings and then Richard
can himself lament less - and hopefully stop lamenting entirely.

> ... Cecilia ... accuses Jews of
> having done this (with public money) for themselves and to fill others
> with guilt, sympathy, etc. for doubtful purposes.

I am not saying that "the Jews" had intentionally and maliciously
schemed to fill others with guilt.      I am just saying that for
various reasons, it is mostly Jews who are "into" Holocaust Education -
both for themselves and for the general public, and when HolEd is planned,
mostly by Jews and by non-Jews who have primarily Jewish-helping
goals in mind (as opposed to general-helping), the planners are going
to have a very strong tendancy to come up with teaching methods and
approaches that are OPTIMAL for "the average Jew", but that might
as the same time be UNOPTIMAL for Germans, Poles, or Ukrainians.

I am not saying that "the Jews" actually sit down and try to devise
ways to make the Holocaust a harder subject for Germans, etc.     Most
who are "into" HolEd and who state their Holocaust Education and Holocaust
Memorial goals as "wanting to reach out to the general public", would most
certainly WANT to make the subject as EASY for Germans to learn and to deal
with as possible, not as hard as possible.

But because of some very important factors beyond the knowledge and
control of the mainly-Jewish planners, the ways that are easier (note
"easier", not "easy") for them are assumed by them, without their even
realizing it, that THEIR easier ways are not universally easier ways.

And those very important factors I am alluding to, but for sake of
simplicity, an not yet detailing, are for the most part not of Jewish
doing or making or causing - even though Henry Morgenthau's role and
the roles of some other INDIVIDUAL Jews have given the APPEARANCE of
Jewish making to some people.     But for the most part, these factors,
which were dominant in America from 1945 until circa 1953/1954 (roughly
after the Cold War had gotten into full swing - and hence "The Allies"
now "needed" Germany as a shield against "the Reds' and "the Red Scare"
and the Berlin Airlift was on) were of "WASP" (for lack of a better word)
making and of the making of other Americans trying to melt themselves
down to pour themselves into WASP molds.

And the most prominent among these wanna-be-WASPs were the Self-Hating
Germans.     It is the SHGs who generally engaged in the most intense
and most damaging of anti-Germanism.

Withing the GAs, the Self-Haters aside, the main ways of attempting
to deal with "the Hitler stuff" (the word "Holocaust" was not yet in
use) was by either trying to loose one's German identity or else remain
a Proud German, but make the whole subject of the whole sorry mess
TABOO - sssssssooooooo taboo that we did not even tell one another
how awful even just the news of it alone made us feel, let alone tell
one another how much MORE awful it made us feel to be made the butts
of undeserved hatred and scorn - either directly or else by hearing
people say things like "I'll NEVER by one of those Volkswagens - those
krauts put their heil-hitlering hands all over it in the factory!"

Among the non-Germans and non-Jews, this was primarily left-over
war hysteria and of veterans of the European Theater and of the
Home Front, of Gold Star Mothers and Fathers and Siblings not yet
recovered from being a nation in the constant stresses of war.

For the Self-Hating Germans, it was not only the above, but also
their inability to positively handle the news of "that stuff that
the Nazis did to the Jews".     Tabooist too, had to deal with both.
Both groups were beset with an underserved, yet very personalized
guilt for the Holocaust that would be bad enough if the external
environment were not so hostile, but with the hostile environment,
the must-be-somehow-escaped pain was even worse.

For the Jewish Americans of that time, the primary reaction was also
one of making the Whole-A-Mess, the whole sorry mess, a taboo subject.
Jews did not have to contend with lots of other people hating them
or deriding them in public for what would in the future come to be called
"the Holocaust", but there were other Holocaust-related problems that I
will not detail here - not because they are unimportant, but because
the readers of HOLOCAUS would "tend" to already have some familiarity
with them.

In 1948, Jews had something very good happen that gave them a very early
collective advantage at Holocaust recovery that the Germans had no
counterpart of yet - the birth of the State of Israel.    But this also
carried worries and burdens for Israel was at war almost as soon as it
was formed and there was the stain and stress of that Partition business
and of worrying if the new country would succeed or fail.      Some
Jews even today say things to me (or where I can overhear) such as
what the Director of the Holocaust Center of Greater Pittsburgh, Linda
Hurwitz, told me approx two years ago, "If it were not for the founding
of Israel in 1948, I would not be able to bear the Holocaust."     As
another example, a Jewish college student I met on the Hillel Mailing
List mentioned to me in e-mail whose subject was Israel today in a
general sense, couched his enthusiasm for Israel thus (emphasis his):
"Israel is *THE* answer to the Holocaust."      I did not really want
to get into "that subject" with him, but I still sent him a short message
in which I quoted that sentence and then asked him, "If Israel had never
been founded, how would you deal with the Holocaust?"      He answered
back kinda dumbfounded with, "Wow.   I don't know how I would deal with
it."      You see, both of these people are making the counterweight of
Israel their main (and perhaps ONLY method for the Hilleler) method of
dealing with the Holocaust.

Germans, not in America and not in Europe, do not HAVE *Israel* to
counteract the overburden.     And for me, at least, for many years,
Israel was a "thorn in my side" in the sense that I was REMINDED of
the Holocaust every time I heard of Israel, so I tried to avoid hearing
of thinking about Israel.      I do not know if this kind of avoidance
was common among AGs or not, but if so, then what was to the AJs a
help (at least after all of the plusses and minuses were summed)
was to the AGs an added burden.

Germans did not have anything "good" until The Allies decided to use
Germany as a shield against the Reds, if being having Monkeys-In-The-
Middle for near and distant cousins was "good" for AGs.     At least
it was not as bad as seeing newsreels saying that your cousins baked
Jews in ovens (with you taking the word "oven" LITERALLY!!!!).    But
whatever "good" come from this and the Berlin Airlift did not come
anywhere near the "good" that the AJs were fortunate enough to get
earlier, in 1948.

But as the Red Scare intensified and the first person with an at least
half-way obviously German name (Eisenhower, which is just a spelling
variation of Eisenhauer - Ironchopper or Ironhacker) took the Oath of
Office as President of the United States.      ((Herbert Hoover was
German too, the name Hoover being a spelling variation of Huber.
It is likely that Taft was also German and it is even a possibility
that Lincoln had originly been Linkhorn - even though proof of this
cannot be come by.    All of this is according to Albert Faust in
_The German Element in American History_ (circa 1918).     George
Fredricks' Pennsylvania Dutch Cookery (circa 1935) also lists Herbert
Hoover among its page-long list of "Pennsylvania Dutch Notables"))

So, the anti-German public remarks died down, but both the AGs and
the JAs were both still using Tabooism as the main method of TRYING
to deal with the Whole-A-Sorry-Mess - the Germans even more so than
the Jews, IMHO.

Then in 1960 - 1961 some "good", albeit again Cold War related things
happened to the Germans but another item was also very much in the news
at the time that would be the starting point for the end of Tabooism as
the main Jewish coping strategy, but would also get the general public
again talking about those "ovens", those showers, those gas chambers,
those Jews, that Israel, that would drive the AGs even FURTHER into
Tabooism.      And even if the general public had been bored with those
"old war stories", the internalized undeserved personalized guilt would
have alone driven German America deeper into tabooism even if these things
were mentioned on the newscast dispassionately.       The "good" of
that time was the Soviet Union building the Berlin Wall and of JFK
going there and saying "Ich bin ein Berliner!"      But the bad was
something that was mentioned by AG's in only a whisper, and then only
if absolutely necessary - the Eichmann Trial.       This trial triggered
a whole now wave of anti-Germanism out there in the popular culture -
part of it was revival of "war hysteria" but part of it was people
using the subject of "Jews getting baked in ovens" as 1) a source of
having somebody else - Germans - to spit on in order to relieve one's
own personal insecurities, and 3) it was a chance for the Self-Hating
Germans to again "relieve themselves" once it became popular again to
deride Germans.     Back then, it was not so much JEWS JEWS JEWS JEWS
being thrown at me in the popular culture as "Ohhhh Dzherrrrman!   Krauts.
Huns.   Ogres who start wars every generation.     Ogres who have to
be kept at bay least they take over the world and kill all of the
non-Germans in the world.     They will start World War Three the moment
they get the chance.      (At that time, I did not know that I was German!
I thought that I was all Irish, so I feared that the Huns would eat me alive
too!     I did not even know that there were millions of Germans in America.
I thought that all of the cannibalistic ogres were all on the other side
of the Atlantic Ocean!   ) I had heard the word Nazi, but thought it was
just another synonym for German (like kraut and hun).    By that time I
had also figured that that "Hitler" person I had head about since age
three, but knew was "so bad" that it cannot even be mentioned what he did
or even his name alone unless absolutely necessary and then only in a
"hush-hush!" tone was "the president of the Germans".     I assumed that
was why he was so bad and so hush-hush.     But I had not yet heard any
notion of Germans going after Jews - they, according to what I had heard
from the kids in school - NEVER at home - hated and killed EVERYBODY but
themselves!!!!.     This was at a Catholic school.     I never saw kids
draw swastikas or iron crosses or hiel-hitler one another.     Jews were
almost NEVER mentioned by either teachers of kids.     I instead, learned
of Jews at home via the positive stories Mom would tell me of the time
she was a little girl living on Stanton Avenue (which was then a
predominantly Jewish neighborhood).

Then, after third grade, Mom, to my delight, said that I could go to the
public school I had been begging her to send me to all along.     In the
summer between third and fourth grade, I found out I was German too and
reacted with revulsion initially but then got proud of it - a forced
price, because when I ask Mom why "all the kids" say that the Germans
are so bad, she at first denied that it was even being said by those
kids that Germans were bad and admonished me to be proud of it and then
left the room.      A minute later she came back into the room, said,
"Now kids, there is this very very very very very bad thing connected
with Germanness, so I want you kids to be on the lookout for it."
Then she left again, feigning a trance in order to deny that I and
my brother were begging her to tell us what it was.

Upon starting Overbrook in 1965, I heard the same stories that the
Germans are bad, are Nazis, Huns, and krauts.     I also heard for
the first time that 'a good German' is supposed to hate all of the Jews.
"Jew" and "German" were paired together by the kids always in negative
ways and often.     This was all new and strange.
Some of the other kids would entertain themselves by drawing "German
symbols" (which were Iron Crosses and Swastikas, but it did would not
learn those words for years), drawing "SS-symbols" (which was the
lightning bolt and the Death Head), by making heil-hitler salutes, by
saying sieg-heil, schwienhund, achtung, concentration camp,
Gestapo, SS  - all words I had never heard before at home.    At home,
we used a little German, but stuff like, Auf Wiedersehn, Was willst du
haben, Mache schwindt (another way to say "Hurry up"), Gute Nacht, Hund,
Blum, Sauerkraut,
Brauschweiger, Dummkopf, Dummeresel, schwortz (our way of saying black),
weiss, and Kindergarten.

And while the kids were saying that the
krauts (and me as well, since I refused to play the disidentify or
self-hate game) were bad for hating the Jews, those same kids would be
saying that the Jews control the banks, the press, and are money-hungry,
and own most of the businesses and want to take over America financially.

And three of the boys had an "SS-Club" where they would pretend that they
were SS-men, Gestapo, Goebels, Goring, Himmler, and Hitler - ALWAYS when
no teachers were around.     I once saw them pretend to be beating up
a Jew.

Of course, when I asked Mom where the kids were getting all of that
"the Jews control everything" stuff, she just changed the subject.
And I KNEW not to raise the subject of what is heil-hitler, what
is this business of "a good German must hate the Jews"?

Then, in the worst sort of way I "found out" about "bake in ovens",
showers, Dachau, Buchenwald, and concentration camp.     I was teased
by other kids, and harrassed by Miss Eilash for "darrrring to still
be proud of being German after what 'you' Germans did to the Jews."
(note "the Jews", not "us Jews" or "my cousins" or "all my Mom's relatives"
etc.    This hints that she was probably not Jewish but likely to be
a self-hating German).     I had another Self-Hating German teacher
who would lecture explicit anti-ETHNICALLY German stuff to the class,
but she thought I was all Irish.      She also overly patronized the
only Jewish kid in our school and called upon her and only her to
"confirm" the the anti-Germanism as "right" and to "give the Jewish position"
on this or that controversial issue - always to be "rewarded" by a
"bow of reverence" that only made a spectacle of the kid in front of
the whole class and embarrassed her.      That teacher made darned
certain that we "all knew" that Eva was Jewish and also that Mr.
Kirschbaumer, our principal was not only Jewish, but, as she put
it to us "almost got baked by those terrible Germans in one of their
ovens".     Even though I had never seen any anti-Germanism out of
Kirschbaumer, I just assumed that he hated the Germans secretly -
otherwise the Self-Hating German teacher would not DARE preach
anti-ETHNICLY-German bigotry like that.     Truth is, Kirschbaumer
probably never knew.     We had a proud Jewish teacher, Mr. Goldstein
and he never did anti-Germanism and I believed that he was not
prejudiced - especially since he talked to Mr. Becker, a proud
German like me.     But I could not even tell Mr. Becker about
what the kids and two teachers were doing, for the Whole-A-Sorry-Mess
was THAT taboo.

You can see that by that time, I was already set up for some kind of
future trouble.     This kind of thing cannot go on forever in an
repressed and internalized state with no way possible to deal with
the Whole-A-Sorry-Mess positively.

Then by seventh grade (1968), I noticed a slack-off in the anti-Germanism
out there in the popular culture and it remained slacked off until
a single, but very unpleasent incident in eleventh grade history class
(1973).     There, a teacher, not out of anti-German motives, but just
out so sheer thrill-seeking one day joyously, with a big grin,
and in a loud and very happily excited voice announced to our class:
"O.K. class!   Today I am going to show you a movie where you will get
to see all those Jews baking in all those ovens!!!!    And the footage
was even filmed BY THE SS THEMSELVES!!!!!!"     It was as if SS-men
for cinematographers made the whole thing an even BIGGER "treat" from
him to us kids.

That day had a permanent and indelible impact upon me, but I'll not
get into that today.     His name was Mr. Russell and it was the
Ringgold School District in Monongahela, Pennsylvania.     There were
no Jews in our class and almost no Jews living in that school district.

And then around 1976 - 1979, I would notice bookstores filled with
books with swastikas on the covers, as if putting a swastika on the
cover would hook into the fascination and titillation over "the Nazis",
"the SS' , and "the Holocaust" that seemed to just explode and seemed
to be everywhere - certainly in every bookstore.     This was down
in Washington County, which is the county abuting Allegheny County
(where Pittsburgh is) on the south.     I wonder if the bookstores
in Squirrel Hill, Pittsburgh's main Jewish neighborhood also had so
many swastikas on display.      I am beginning to think not, but back
then, I assumed that in Squirrel Hill (where I had never been back then)
there would be ten times as many swastikas in bookstores because I thought
that "the Jews" were promoting all of this - remember, I had head it over
and over (never from home, though) that "the Jews own all of the
book publishers."

I know better now.    I am just reporting what I had thought back then.

In 1977, some people at work took to teasing me (just for their own
entertainment) about joke after joke after joke about lampshades,
showers, ways-to-kill-a-Jew-with-a-Volkswagen, in-the-door-and-out-the-
chimney, and worse.     They did it precisely because I was wishing
they would not even bring up the subject.     My discomfort, however,
added to their entertainment.      Only two people in the workplace
did it.     Others just bystood.      At that time, however, I noticed
something new.     (This was Bethel Park Borough, in Allegheny, so
a few of our customers were Jewish, so the percentage of Jews in
my milieu at that time, while still extremely low by Squirrel Hill
standards, was still higher than it had ever been in my whole life
up until then.     The two co-workers would make fun of not only
me, but of the Jewish customers.     Oh, they would say, to me:
"Hey Cecelia, too bad we don't have an oven in here.    I guess when
Todd comes in this morning, you will have to just settle for throwing
him in the fryer."      And they could be "at it" with me, the Todd
or another Jewish customer would come in.     Instantly those two
would shut up.     But later, as soon as Todd was out the door and
"safely" into his car, ready to drive out of the parking lot, those
two would just pick up right where they left off.

And they did not shut up because they cared about how the individual
Jewish customers themselves felt.     They, in their (and also mine
at the time) overestimation of "Jewish power" though that the ADL
will see to it that the business get shut down if it ever found
out that such goofing around about the Holocaust was going on there.
So, if they had perceived the Jews to be powerless, then Todd would
have been as much an object of Holocaust-based entertainment as I
was.     And this was all before NBC ran the four-part mini-series,
"Holocaust", which was based on a NOVEL by Gerald Green and was just
NBC's answer to ABC's "Roots" that has run several months prior.
NBC's running of "Holocaust" in 1978 is when "the experts" THINK
that the Holocaust first became commonly-mentioned out in the
popular culture.     Well, "the experts", mostly Jews, are going on
recollections of their own personal experience.     Well, IMHO,
wherever they went before NBC ran Holocaust, if people were in the
process of "mentioning" the Holocaust or "having fun with it", then
the shut up the moment they say "the future expert" coming just like
they would shut up for Todd and the other Bethel Park Jewish customers.

It was at this time that I first began to realize that the Jews are
not at all behind all of this constant shoving of the
Holocaust down my throat.

Years later, in e-mail, I DID learn of a "powerless Jew" being made
the regular object of Holocaust-based entertainment.     It was at
a small college (I assume many miles from the nearest Hillel Foundation
and even further away from the nearest ADL Regional Office) and it
was in a frat house.     There was only one Jewish kid in that frat.
Guess what the other "Brothers" would have a ball doing!!!    They
would go into the shower room, all fall down on the floor yelling,
"Auschwitz!!!!"      The fact that the Jewish kid would rather that
they would not do that just made it all the more fun for the other
"Brothers".     I do not know what year this was.

Then I got another job in Washington, Pennsylvania at Washington and
Jefferson College.     This was still before Holocaust ran.     Some
co-workers, knowing that I was proud German, would tease me about
ZBT as being "the Jew-house" (knowing that I did not want them doing
that), but that was the worst of it.     But again, as soon as they
heard, "German", it was their "automatic reflex reaction" to tease
me about the ZeeBees.

Then I was working for my dad when Holocaust ran in 1978, so I do not
know how "the public' reacted to it.      A few months later, I went
into the Army where it ran in 1982 without anybody in Army reacting
to it where I could see.

>From then on, the popular culture seemed to lay off the subjest of the

But it was right at that time that "the Jews" come forth with trying to
get it into the schools (thinking that the lack of mention of it in THEIR
schools was a general phenomenon across the entire country).    And here,
a "new era" was beginning.     But I cannot deal with it today.    I have
given too much space to the era that was beyond the making and beyond the
control of "the Jews".

> I despair of
> convincing people like Cecilia of anything,

Don't dispair.    I already "know" much more than "anything".

> let alone that the Holocaust
> should make no one feel good.  Jews have not "designed" a response to
> the Holocaust.

A complex set of things make of fall together, some advocated by the
Jewish establishment, some beyond it.

> There is no single response,

There is all kinds of responses, I know.

> there is no board of
> directors or secret government of Jews.


> Jews have confronted their
> catastrophe and written about it a great, great deal because it very
> obviously impacts on their senses of self, and because others, including
> the perpetrators, remained silent for so long.

I have covered at least part of why the Jews (not all, but many) came
out of Tabooism and why the Germans (and we GAs are **** N O T *****

> If Cecilia and those
> like her are unhappy with Jewish responses,

I am happy with some Jewish responses and unhappy with others.    Some
Jewish responses need augmented, however.

I am very unhappy at the lack of CONSTRUCTIVE German American response.

> they are invited to fashion
> their own

I am doing this in HOPES of eventually getting a positive GA response
going, but the way things are, there in no structure within the
infrastructure of the GA community to do this, so if I wantta do
ANYTHING, I gotta "do it with Jews" because the Germans ain't doing
as a group except via IHReview, CODOH, and GANPAC.     There might
be other individuals "also going with the Jews" but with no plans
for getting something positive going within the GA infrastructure,
so they do not speak up for German concerns as I do.

> rather than whining about imaginary conspiracies to deny them
> their due.

I never talked about planned and purposeful Jewish conspiracies,
Jews not effectively reaching the Tabooist/Escapist/Revisionist
portions of the GA community due to lack of knowledge of what we
have been through with the "have fun with the Holocausters"
who would shut up whenever anybody Jewish came along.
(This phenomenon did not go on in all areas of the country, by the
way, and self-hating Germans and ones who would disidentify or else
had little or no identity in the first place got left alone.    It
was only us Tabooists, least able to handle the "have fun with the
Holocausters" who became lightning rods for their "fun-seeking".

> They need not take the money of organizations they have deep
> animosities toward;

Nobody is OFFERING me money.    There is no mainline Jewish organization
that I have deep animosities towards.     I do not even have deep
animosities towards the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council, even though
I feel that it is totally ignorant of my and of other proud GA's needs,
and fear that it would just say "take a hike" if I were to even try to
approach it.

Yes, the Council gets federal funding.    You live in Chicago, Rick.
Go ask Sidney Yates about that.     He can tell you much more details
of the funding than I.    He is not only Chair of the House
Appropriations Subcommittee, but he is a member of the Council himself.
I have already written him a letter, but have not yet mailed it as my
first feeble attempt to approach that Council.

Call him or write him or visit him in either his Chicago or in his
Evanston offices.    I'll even give you the D.C. office.    He
represents the 9th District which includes parts of Chicago, all
of Evanston, and some of the other near north suburbs.    He has
been in Congress for many years, so he knows what is what.

     Sidney R. Yates                  Sidney R. Yates
     Room 3920                        Room 2700
     230 South Dearborn Street        2100 Ridge Avenue,
     Chicago, IL 60604                Evanston, IL 60204

     (312) 353-4596                   (708) 382-2610

           Sidney R. Yates
           2109 Rayburn House Office Building,
           Washington, D.C. 20515-1309

           (202) 225-2111  --  Voice
           (202) 225-3493  --  FAX

they need not threaten us with going over to the
> Revisionists (unless what?)

Not a threat.    Just a report of how we sometimes involuntarily
react when the Whole-A-Sorry-Mess gets to be too much - when a
last straw is laid.      That is what happened to me in eleventh
grade history class in Mr. Russell's class.      I did not plan
it.   I did not threaten it.     It just happened.     If you
want to see it happen less often, then it is important that the
needs of the proud Germans be heard and met.       Rev is
a result, a backlash, not a threat.     I want there to be less
Rev, but there won't be less until something positive gets going
in the GA community.     And I say we cannot get it going alone.
The Council is already "offering" to help, whether it realizes it
or not.     It says that it wants to "reach out" does it not.
Only big mistake, they are reaching out without first doing proper
market research first!     It THINKS it is properly marketing a
product to us, but due to factors beyond its knowledge, they are
scaring us off into the direction of Rev instead.     I am wanting
to tell then how NOT to inadvertently scare us off into Rev (which
for us is Shelter against the Whole-A-Sorry-Mess).     But do you
think that Yates will write me back?     We will see.

Cecelia Mu"llermeder    (412) 441-7980
P.O. Box 71222
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
USA                      Veriatus virtus et quaecumque sunt vera.
Date:         Mon, 9 Aug 1993 12:56:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Jewish Resources in Computer Networking by Lucia Ruedenberg: INTRO

[n Network Project"  7-AUG-1993 15:36:46.35

    In the next three messages you will receive the article:
    "Jewish Resources in Computer Networking"
    by Lucia Ruedenberg from the Performance Studies Department, New York
    This is  a comprehensive review of existing Jewish Resources and it will
    be published in the near future in a folklore scientific journal.
    I want to compliment Lucia Ruedenberg for this fine article. I really
    hope it will contribute to expand the ranks of Jewish individuals and
    organizations connected and making good use of the network for increased
    global Jewish integration.

    Koh Lehi Lucia !
    The article appears also in the Global Jewish Information Server in a
    new section called Jewish Networking Papers. You should:

    Login as: jewishnet

    and choose the above mentioned section.

    This server allows you to transfer the file directly to your PC (Choose

    The article is being sent to Jewishnt subscribers in three parts:

    Part 1 - 208 lines
    Part 2 - 232 lines
    Part 3 - 344 lines

    To the attention to our commercial networks subscribers to whom the
    dowloading of such big files may cost too much.

    Dov Winer
    Global Jewish Networking

Dov Winer
Ben Gurion University
Internet : viner at
Date:         Mon, 9 Aug 1993 12:57:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Jewish Resources in Computer Networking  part 1

                       Lucia Ruedenberg, New York University

         During the summer of 1992, one enthusiastic user on the JewishNet
         discussion list extolled the benefits of computer networking:

              Why ignore the potential for networking all major Jewish
              library collections' catalogs?  for making Bar Ilan's
              responsa database available to any scholar [or] Halachist
              writing a tshuvah?  Can't find genealogical information?
              Telnet to Beit Hatfutsot's database server and look up your

              Suppose we started a forum for "Jewish" recipes, putting
              them into a database for anyone to access? I think that the
              potential is there for Jews to make use of the network in
              many aspects of Jewish life.

              Remember, during the Russian coup, some of the only
              information smuggled out of the country was through Amateur
              Radio and computer networks...when all official
              communications channels, especially news and phones, were
              cut off. If the Jews had had such a network at the time of
              the Holocaust, the entire world would have heard what was
              going on very quickly, and the war might have been over much

         Tremendous strides have been made recently to take advantage of
         and promote the potential of computer networking for the Jewish
         community. For the price of a local phone call, you can:

              * send a message to Mayor Teddy Kollek in Jerusalem
              * meet Jewish singles from around the world
              * go job hunting, advertise your apartment, discuss
                politics, religion, philosophy, or education
              * chat with your friends in Australia
              * read electronic diaries posted during the gulf war
              * get daily translations of the Hebrew news

                                    -=The Net=-

         If you are a university student or faculty member, you most
         likely have access to BITNET or the Internet, the two major non-
         commercial networks for communication and research between
         academic institutions. If not, there are today numerous networks
         that provide gateways to the Internet. LaQuey (1993) notes that
         this worldwide system of networks and gateways is commonly
         referred to as "the net". Quarterman (1990), who has journeyed
         through all the possible e-mail passageways in the world, has
         documented them in his book _The Matrix: Computer Networks and
         Conferencing Systems Worldwide_.

              The Internet grew out of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects
         Agency), created in 1969 at NYU in cooperation with the US
         Department of Defense. In 1986, with the formation NSFNET
         (National Science Foundation Network) the Internet expanded to
         connect universities and researchers across the U.S. and around
         the world. Today the Internet is owned by approximately 18,000
         organizations worldwide, from large corporations to military
         services and government agencies. According to Quarterman (1993),
         the Internet today extends to more than 40 countries, connecting
         over 8,000 networks worldwide, comprising of more than 1.3
         million computers, and about 8 million individual users. After
         the U.S., the countries with the most Internet hosts are
         Australia, Canada and Germany. The countries with the most hosts
         per person are Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. The
         Internet, which equals the population size of a small country,
         constitutes the largest and most directly connected community in
         the world.

              BITNET (Because It's There NETwork) is the largest general
         purpose academic network, founded in 1981 by City University of
         New York and Yale. Today, BITNET extends worldwide to all the
         major academic institutions that use IBM protocol machines. Hank
         Nussbacher, one of the founders of BITNET at CUNY, moved to
         Israel in 1982 and is a senior networking consultant to MACHBA,
         the Israeli Interuniversity Computer Consortium. In an e-mail
         interview, he recalls that when he moved to Israel he had "a sort
         of net-withdrawal symptom and lobbied everyone in site [sic] to
         connect up." Once IBM Europe was convinced to fund BITNET for an
         initial 3 year trial run, Israel was one of the first countries
         to connect.

         By August 1984, BITNET was established in Israel and the Internet
         followed in August 1989. They are both run by ILAN (Israeli
         Academic Network). Nussbacher notes:

              Nowadays, it has become irrelevant where one sits in the
              world. The network has reduced distances as well as time.
              For people in Israel, the network is especially crucial.
              Israel is surrounded by hostile neighbors and all our
              commerce is done with Europe and the USA. The best way to
              remain in touch with colleagues is via the network.

         Considering how slow and unreliable land mail in Israel can be,
         the network is a boon to writers and authors who can now pass
         draft documents and comments back and forth across the globe in
         minutes. Quarterman (1993) notes that the use of the Internet to
         collaborate on producing a book, business document or any other
         related report saves time, eliminates express mail expense, does
         away with manual transcription, and reduces the need to pass
         floppy disks back and forth.

         As Steele (1991) notes in "Confessions of a Happy Hacker," the
         computer makes possible a new form of human communication, better
         than the telephone and the postal system put together. Not only
         does it provide high speed, low cost transmission of information,
         electronic networking provides the individual user with an
         unprecedented degree of freedom and control over the medium
         itself. This is often referred to as "interactivity", and is
         regarded as a unique cultural discovery of the electronic age.
         Laurel (1991) concludes that the experience of interactivity is a
         "thresholdy phenomenon" that is highly context-dependent: "you
         either feel yourself to be participating in the ongoing action of
         the representation or you don't." Networking centers around four
         basic functions:

              * sending electronic mail (e-mail), usually for
              interpersonal communication, one to one, or in a group
              context such as a discussion list.

              * sending large files of text (ascii file), software and
              graphics (binary files). On BITNET, public servers maintain
              files that can be retrieved by using interactive listserv
              commands. On Internet, FTP (file transfer protocol) allows a
              user to copy files back and forth between two computers.
              Public ftp sites allow any user to connect anonymously and
              download files listed in a directory.

              * the telnet protocol connects a user to a remote machine
              anywhere in the world as if you were logged on from a direct
              terminal. You can participate bulletin boards, conference
              group discussions, or search library catalogs.

              * chatting with someone who is logged on at the same time as
              you are, either one-on-one or in a group.

         As it is not possible to give detailed instructions for all the
         functions here, what follows will assume that the reader has some
         basic networking skills or will be inspired to acquire them. If
         you are a novice, consult the academic computing facility at
         your university regarding getting an account, tutorials, and
         workshops. If you are not affiliated with an academic or research
         institution, you will need to sign on with one of the numerous
         commercial and non-commercial networks such as: Freenet,
         Nyserlink, Delphi, PSILink, CompuServe, AT&T Mail, MCI Mail,
         AppleLink, SprintLink or a local, private bulletin board. Most of
         these are listed in the telephone directories. They all provide
         e-mail gateways to the Internet and some of them offer the full
         range of services described above. Some good user's guides to
         networking are Ed Krol's _The Whole Internet_, Tracy LaQuey's
         _The Internet Companion_, and Brendan Kehoe's _Zen and the Art of
         the Internet_. Additional documents are listed below.

                           -=Index and Search Services=-

         So many resources are available on the Internet that electronic
         index and search services are constantly being developed to help
         users find where information is located. Some basic ones are:

              * Archie indexes more than 1,000 anonymous ftp servers
         worldwide and searches for software by name. Try a public server
         at The Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Telnet to:
         and login as "archie." No password is required. You can forward
         questions to

              * WAIS (Wide-Area Information Servers) is a directory of
         servers that searches for documents indexed by keywords. To try a
         public WAIS terminal, telnet to: and logon with
         the username "wais."

              * Gopher is an automated information server that tunnels
         through the Internet, browsing through other servers and
         information sources such as Archie, certain libraries, and many
         WAIS servers. If you don't have a local server, you can use a
         public server at the University of Indiana. Telnet to: and logon with the username "gopher". There are
         six gopher sites in Israel.

              * Veronica is a database server that will search all Gopher
         servers for key words and extract information for you. You can
         locate it through a Gopher site under Internet Resources.

              * WWW (World Wide Web) is based on the idea that the entire
         Internet can be made into one vast hypertext that can be searched
         for key words. If you don't have a local server, try the public
         server at The Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Telnet to: and logon with the username "www". If you do not
         have Hebrew support don't be bothered by the strange letters that
         may appear on your screen.

              * Hytelnet is a program that helps users find the
         appropriate hosts and login names for library databases and
         catalogs. It is a program that runs on your computer. You can
         download it via anonymous ftp from:; cd library. You
         can try out a demo if you telnet to: Login as

                              * * * * * * *

Dov Winer
Ben Gurion University
Internet : viner at
Date:         Mon, 9 Aug 1993 13:07:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Jewish Resources in Computer Networking  part 2

                       Lucia Ruedenberg, New York University

                               -=Libraries and Databases=-

         With a home computer and modem, you can browse computerized
         library catalogs around the world from your desk via the
         Internet. Each library's menu and commands differ slightly, so be
         sure to read the instructions at each site when you log on,
         especially how to exit. You can search catalogs by author, title,
         or subject heading in order to identify references and citations,
         to build a bibliography, or request interlibrary loan. You can
         telnet to an individual library if you know its address, or you
         can use a search service.

              * RLIN (Research Libraries and Information Network) contains
         cataloging records from the Library of Congress as well as the
         Research Library Group (RLG) - 30 major university and research
         libraries and many smaller affiliates. A search request will
         indicate which libraries have a particular item. This saves you
         the trouble of searching individual sites separately. Bibliographi
         files are subdivided into books, serials, manuscripts, recordings,
         scores, maps, visual materials, and machine readable data files.
         There are also specialized databases.

         You can log onto RLIN from a terminal in most libraries. If you
         want to work from home you will need an account. Private accounts
         can be costly so ask your university or research institution to
         get one for you.

         Libraries on RLIN relevant to Jewish studies include Harvard,
         Brandeis, Columbia, and Hebrew Union College. Libraries for
         folklorists include Indiana University at Bloomington, Penn
         State, UCLA, and Berkeley.

         Not all libraries of interest to Jewish studies are on RLIN.
         Moreover, not all library catalogs on the Internet are fully
         inclusive of their holdings. Many libraries have yet to complete
         retrospective conversion of their holdings or to computerize new
         holdings. For example:

              * Hebrew Union College has holdings listed on RLIN from 1988
              on only.

              * Some of YIVO's special collections are listed on RLIN, but
              not its books or serials. YIVO is not on the Internet.

              * The Jewish Theological Seminary of America uses the ALEPH
              cataloging system: Telnet to: and login as "aleph."

              * For the Oxford University Bodleian Library, telnet to:
     Enter VT100 as terminal type.

         If you can't find what you need in RLIN, check Gopher's "library
         facilities and catalogs" for a geographical listing. You can
         browse through an information file on any given library or you
         can connect by choosing the library name with the  option.

              * ALEPH is the Israeli Interuniversity Computerized
         Catalogue System. Through a menu, you can access libraries and
         databases in Israel, both in Hebrew and other languages. Seven
         universities in Israel constitute the ALEPH network. Their
         catalogs are interconnected and users can switch from one to
         another once they are inside any ALEPH catalog. You can access
         ALEPH by telneting to any of the following. Login as "aleph":

                 Bar-Ilan University     
                 Ben-Gurion University 
                 Haifa University            
                 Hebrew University    
                 Tel Aviv University  
                 Weizmann Institute of Science

         For further details refer to the document "Internet Accessible
         Library Catalogs & Databases" available via anonymous FTP from; cd hank.400, get internet.library.

         The holdings of some major library databases relevant to Jewish
         studies can be found through ALEPH:

              * The index to Hebrew Periodicals in Eretz Israel Database
         from the University of Haifa Library

              * RAMBI (Index to Articles on Jewish Studies since 1986), at
         the Jewish National Library of The Hebrew University in
         Jerusalem, Givat Ram, is compiled from thousands of periodicals
         with full bibliographic data.

              * An index to the Israeli legal journal (Mishpateach) and
         the decisions of the Supreme Court of Israel, at Tel Aviv

              * The Institute of Microfilms' Hebrew Manuscripts at the
         National Library of The Hebrew University.

              * The Microfilm Masters of Jewish and Israeli Periodicals
         indexes originals and negatives of periodicals in selected
         libraries in England, the United States, and Israel.

         The Responsa Project: Bar-Ilan University has transfered its
         Global Jewish Database to CD-ROM and developed an advanced
         retrieval search program which runs on a PC. Although not yet on
         line, it is the largest computerized Jewish database in the
         world. It contains the Tanach, Midrash, Babylonian Talmud with
         Rashi's Commentary, Jerusalemite Talmud and Rambam and 253 books
         of Responsa covering a period of over a 1000 years. Information
         can be obtained from: Ofrer Inc, 1 Executive Drive, Fort Lee, NJ
         07024; e-mail: Or: The Responsa Project,
         Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel; e-mail:

                        -=Virtual Libraries and Exhibits=-

         At present, a library search over the Internet retrieves only
         bibliographic data on physical holdings. There are a few virtual
         libraries where the text is accessible online. For example, the
         text of the Bible and the Koran, in English, can be found in WAIS
         (Wide Area Information System) and in Project Gutenberg through
         searching the Rutger's University reference section, among other
         sites. Encyclopedias can be found in CARL (Colorado Alliance for
         Research Libraries). Information on different countries can be
         found in the CIA World Fact Book, at different sites through
         Gopher. You can read these texts online or download them.

         "Scrolls from the Dead Sea: The Ancient Library of Qumran and
         Modern Scholarship" is an online exhibit from the U.S. Library of
         Congress as of July 1993. Reproductions of a portion of the
         physical exhibit, including images of 12 scroll fragments and 29
         other objects loaned by the Israel Antiquities Authority, can be
         retrieved by anonymous ftp. Download graphic files in binary
         mode. Ftp to:; cd pub/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit. The
         person in charge is K.D. Ellis of the Special Projects Office:

                                 -=E-mail Lists=-

         A discussion list is a form of electronic community, consisting
         of a group of people who receive postings from each other,
         usually around a topic. When an individual posts to a list, all
         subscribers receive a copy as mail. Lists are handled by a server
         (a piece of software) at a particular node (a computer at an
         institution), monitored by an individual (usually volunteer).

         There are over 2500 Internet and Bitnet lists worldwide. Of
         these, about 90 are relevant to Jews or Jewish topics. As many
         discussion lists are archived at various sites, you can retrieve
         past discussions. You can find lists of Jewish lists, with
         descriptions and instructions on how to subscribe to them, from
         the following sites:

              * A file that describes about 50 lists devoted to topics of
         Jewish interest is available on the Global Jewish Network. They
         include discussions of political activism, Holocaust research,
         women, religious studies, the UJA and Hillel, Yiddish scholars,
         music lovers, Ladino and German speaking Jews. Telnet to: Login as "jewishnet" (choose English) and choose
         "description of Jewish Interest Listserv Conferences." You can
         download the file through the "print" option.

              * About 40 lists originate in Israel pertaining to
         scientific research, computer networking, absorbing olim,
         discussing music, and Japanese board games, to name a few. You
         can download this file of ILAN based lists from Tel Aviv
         University via anonymous ftp from:; cd hank.400, get
         israel.lists. Or, from a Gopher site go to /Middle East/Bar Ilan
         University/Ilan Network Info.

              * If you are looking for a mate, you can subscribe to the
         Jewish Singles Mailing List (JSML). Write to the moderator,
         Hillel Steinberg: He will send you a
         template to fill out, after which you receive a list of hundreds
         of postings from other singles, with you on it. Or you can send
         your information in hardcopy to: JSML, 1705 East-West Hwy, Apt
         202, Silver Spring, MD  20910.

         At the 1993 American Jewish Libraries (AJL) conference, Yael
         Penkower described some creative uses of discussion lists. For
         example, a member of a synagogue in England prints out all the
         issues of the mail-jewish discussion list for halacha, and adds
         them to a folder in the shul each week, much to the delight of
         the congregation. Many lists periodically arrange for gatherings
         where list members can meet face to face.

         Another example was announced in April 1993 on the Jewish
         Electronic Meeting list (JEM). With the help of the Duke
         University Computer Center, the Durham Orthodox Kehillah at Beth
         El Synagogue in North Carolina started its own e-mail list for
         members, most of whom already had electronic addresses. They can
         now use a centralized address to send out announcements such as
         recruiting a minyan for observing a yortsayt.

         -                         =Newsgroups=-

         Newsgroups are another form of group discussion that work like a
         bulletin board. Individuals post to a public site and log on to
         read them at their leisure. Whereas discussion list etiquette is
         often (but not necessarily) respectful, newsgroups pride
         themselves on frank provocative exchanges. Of the over 4000
         newsgroups worldwide, there are about 7 related to Jewish topics.

         If you do not have a local server, you can telnet to a public
         site: Log in as a visitor and type "go usenet"
         at the prompt. The site is extremely busy so try it early morning
         or late at night.

         One of the most active newsgroups is soc.culture.jewish, a
         discussion of Jewish culture and religion. Other active groups
         include talk.politics.mideast, and alt.revisionism regarding
         Holocaust revisionism. The following e-mail lists are also
         available as newsgroups:, il.board,,
         il.israel.mideast, and il.israel.israeline (the last two are
         translations of the press, not discussion groups).

         Scholars of vernacular culture, folklore, and communications will
         find discussion lists and newsgroups a rich source for research.
         In March 1993, a hilarious thread appeared on soc.culture.jewish
         under the subject heading "Talmud Fortran" - a cross
         fertilization between computer science and Purim humor on the
         problems of kashering buggy software programs. It included one
         discussion arranged like a page of Talmud. Past discussions of
         soc.culture.jewish are archived at the NY-Israel Project and the
         JewishNet described below.

         End of part 2 of 3 - 232  lines
                              * * * * * * *

Dov Winer
Ben Gurion University
Internet : viner at
Date:         Mon, 9 Aug 1993 13:08:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Jewish Resources in Computer Networking  part 3

         Part 3 of 3 - 344 lines
                       Lucia Ruedenberg, New York University

                              -=Jewish Networking=-

         Recent efforts have been made to promote "Jewish networking" - to
         facilitate communication and coordination between Jewish
         communities via electronic "landing" sites that maintain
         electronic databases of information files and pointers to help
         you find things Jewish on the net. Electronic networking
         decentralizes by encouraging the reproduction of information and
         communication between otherwise isolated communities. Duplication
         of efforts reflects a diversity of interests and emphases within
         the Jewish community.

              * In May 1993, the office of the Mayor of Jerusalem Teddy
         Kollek got online:

              * The Global Jewish Information Network, or JewishNet, is a
         project of the government of Israel, initiated by Dov Winer in
         1988 when he presented the idea to the Ministry of
         Communications. In 1991 he won the contract to implement the
         project and headed a team of Makash/SIBAM to develop it. By April
         1993 a committee for the project was established in the Jewish
         Agency and by May 1993 the Policy Planning Commitee for
         Telematics in Israel included the project into its policy for a
         national infrastructure.

         Originally established at Ben Gurion University, as of June 1993
         JewishNet has a server at The Hebrew University with full Hebrew
         support. Telnet to: Login as "jewishnet". If you
         do not have Hebrew support, choose English and don't be bothered
         by the strange letters that may appear on your screen. You can
         download files through the "print" option.

         Winer, originally from Brazil, came to Israel in 1966. A
         psychologist, he taught at Ben Gurion University, established the
         Evaluation and Applied Research Unit of the Negev College, has
         been active in intervention projects in development towns, the
         kibbutz movement, and the establishment of networking projects
         through the Makash association, a non-profit organization for
         furthering social and educational goals through computer
         communications. In an e-mail interview, he notes:

              When I got acquainted with the possibilities implied by
              worldwide was clear that we may reach
              unprecedented global integration of the Jewish community.
              Jewish education, community life, Jewish political action,
              the countering of processes of decay and disintegration -
              all these may benefit of such integration. All this may
              suggest a better prospect for the Jewish People than that
              foreseen by Jewish demography for the beginning of the next

         He envisions a network that caters specifically to the
         information and communication needs of Jewish communities all
         over the world, accessible from every Jewish congregation,
         institute, school and home, providing services such as e-mail,
         directories, easy access to databases, electronic newspapers,
         bulletin boards and conferences, software, educational services
         and a Jewish electronic university.

         JewishNet maintains a database of electronic files on discussion
         lists, usenet groups, reading lists and FAQ files. It also is a
         server that provides access to many of the resources and services
         mentioned in this article - libraries,  Holocaust archives, and
         other databases. Winer notes that the "Jewish Libraries and
         Catalogs" option points to formerly buried and unknown holdings
         in the Aleph system, and he recommends the filmography and films
         archives. Browse through "Jewish networking" to learn more about
         the diversity of Jewish community networks world-wide, including
         pen-pal programs between students of secondary schools from
         kibbutzim, moshavim, cities in Israel, and abroad.

         For updates and questions regarding Jewish networking subscribe
         to the discussion list: jewishnt at listserv@bguvm.bitnet.

              * A database of files about ILAN (Israel Academic Network)
         is maintained by Hank Nussbacher at Tel Aviv University. You can
         download them via anonymous ftp from:; cd hank.400.
         There is an index of files in the directory. The file
         "israel.faq" is a collection of Frequently Asked Questions about
         the Israeli Academic Network. Some other useful files include a
         list of "Israel.lists", files on Hebrew networking, and a 56 page
         guide to all relevant information on the Internet that pertains
         to religious studies.

         If you want to join the computer networking community in Israel,
         subscribe to the discussion list run by Hank Nussbacher: il-board
         at listserv@taunvim or

              * A collection of Israel-related files has been compiled by
         Jonathan Kamens at MIT ( He welcomes contributions
         and suggestions. The files can be retrieved via anonymous ftp
         from:; cd pub/israel. They include Israel's
         Declaration of Independence, translated into English, reprints of
         articles published by CAMERA (The Committee for Accuracy in
         Middle East Reporting in America), articles published in the
         newsletter Near East Report affiliated with AIPAC, and journal
         entries by Robert Werman, an Israeli, written during Operation
         Desert Storm.

         To receive an index of files by mail, send e-mail to: with "help" and "send
         israel/index" on separate lines in the body of the message.

              * The New York - Israel Project was founded in 1992 by Avrum
         Goodblatt (originally from New York), at the invitation of
         Richard Mandelbaum, head of NYSERNET (New York State Research and
         Educational Network) which serves as the physical link between
         Israel and U.S. research networks. The actual node for the NY-
         Israel Project is located in Liverpool, NY. You can access it via
         Gopher under /other gophers/north america/USA/new york/new york-
         israel project of nysernet. You can download their files via
         anonymous ftp from:; cd israel. Use your
         electronic address as the password. You can also access the
         Project via the JewishNet server.

         Whereas the ftp site is public and can be accessed by
         individuals, accounts on are currently given
         only to Jewish community organizations. In a recent e-mail
         interview, Goodblatt explains that the project's goal was to help
         Jewish organizations provide better services to their
         communities. The National Foundation for Jewish Culture is
         spearheading electronic services such as a National Jewish
         Performing Arts Network and a Jewish theater databank.

         The NY-Israel Project provides public conferencing and an online
         Jewish Information Service of files on how to get around the
         Internet, Holocaust bibliographies, answers to Holocaust
         revisionists, documents on hasidim, American-Israel business
         exchange, Jewish graphics, kashrut, aliya information, Hebrew
         programs and software.

         An almost complete copy of the Tanach in Hebrew is available at
         the NY-Israel Project, via anonymous ftp in the directory
         /israel/tanach/text/masoretic.chumash/regular(or mac)/, or via
         gopher in the directory /new york-israel project of nysernet/
         jews and judaism/devrei torah/. Download it in binary mode.

         The README files tell an interesting story of how Dan Rice found
         and prepared the Tanach files and why some of the books are
         missing. On a philosophical note, he reflects:

              I have thrown out all the specifically messy-dos stuff and
              written some extremely simple programs to play around with
              the so-called 'codes,' so that Unix users can also
              investigate them. No disrespect to the Tanach is intended.
              I hope that no one will mistake this sort of thing for
              actual Torah study.

              * You can also find the Hebrew bible at a site in Finland,
         along with a Hebrew quiz and a Biblical Hebrew language tutorial.
         Ftp to:; login anonymous; cd pub/doc/bible/hebrew.

              * An electronic archive of files on the Holocaust and
         fascism has been established in Canada on the Victoria Freenet.
         Telnet to:; login as "guest"; select
         Government Building from the main menu, and then choose either
         the "Holocaust" or "fascism" archive. It can also be accessed
         through JewishNet.

              * Keshernet is a private, religious network of about 150
         Jewish bulletin boards (BBS) around the world. The New York City
         affiliate, run by the Lubavitch community in Brooklyn, allows
         anyone to dial in, read and write messages world wide free of
         charge for up to 30 minutes each day. Expanded privileges require
         a fee. Dial in with your modem to: (1-718) 756-7201.

         While a private BBS cannot access the larger resources, it can
         provide e-mail to the Internet. It allows a community without
         major institutional affiliations to be connected. For a list of
         Keshernet nodes, look at "Jewish Networking Projects" on
         JewishNet. For information on Jewish bulletin boards, download
         the "jewish-nets" file via anonymous ftp from,
         or browse through it on Gopher.

                           -=Use of Hebrew on the Net=-

         In order to browse through the Hebrew listings in ALEPH, download
         Hebrew files, or send Hebrew e-mail, you need communications
         software that runs Hebrew. For an ongoing discussion on the
         latest developments in this area, subscribe to il-board or ilan-h
         at Technical files are available via
         anonymous ftp from:; cd hank.400, get hebemail.rfc
         or hebrew.doc.

         You can download Hebrew Kermit via anonymous ftp from:; cd pub/hebrew_kermit/ If you need to run the Hebrew Kermit, you can get this program at
         the same site. You need to download software in binary mode.
         At the 1993 AJL meeting in New York, Reflection4 by Walker Rich
         Quinn in Seattle was also recommended as software for Hebrew

                                  -=Chat Modes=-

         Everything described thus far is asynchronous communication;
         information is stored in the memory of a computer for you to
         access at your convenience. Synchronous communication is not
         stored in memory and requires two parties to log on at the same
         time in order to read each other's messages, although it is
         possible to log a chat session.

         During the Gulf Crisis computer networks provided communication
         with the world when conventional phone lines were overwhelmed.
         Many users used RELAY (Bitnet) or IRC (Internet Relay Chat),
         network programs that allow hundreds of users the world over to
         log on and chat simultaneously. On IRC, for example, there was a
         channel call #war, where people met 24 hours a day to discuss the
         ongoing crisis.

         David in Cleveland relates how he logged on and "fingered" a
         number of sites till he found someone at The Hebrew University
         and used interactive "talk" to contact him. He recalls:

              He was connected from his "sealed room" at home via modem.
              After he updated me on the latest radio reports, I asked
              him to make a few phone calls and gave him a list of
              names/numbers. As each call was complete he typed the name
              and status of the family. After that, he asked me to contact
              some close friends of his in the Cleveland area to let them
              know he was all right. I continued to contact him throughout
              the war for status reports during the missile attacks. He
              was always logged in during attacks.

         Many Israelis used discussion lists to communicate with the world
         during this time. Shahar from the Technion in Haifa remembers
         that his 15 year old brother was subscribed to the KIDS-91 list
         and communicated daily with other kids on the list. Three
         Israelis posted "diaries" during the Gulf War. Werman's and
         Shimshoni's postings are archived at the numerous sites detailed
         above. Judy Koren from Haifa University wrote diaries that are
         archived with the HUMANIST list at: listserv@brownvm.

                                -=Across Borders=-

         For political reasons, some people wonder how computer networks
         may influence communication between Israelis and Arabs. Quarterman
         (1993) notes that because the Internet had its roots in the open
         and information sharing world of academia, security has typically
         taken a backseat.

         A recent discussion of this topic appeared during June 1993 on
         the il-board discussion group, upon learning that two
         universities on the Westbank had connected to the Internet. One
         user commented: "Now that El Najah University (  and
         Bir Zeit University ( are on the Internet, I just
         wonder if they, too, will be able to subscribe to il.board :-)."
         Someone replied, "Is there a reason why not?" Others commented,
         "and we should be able to subscribe to the PA-BOARD :-)" or "No,
         they'll have their own palestine.board (autonomous, of course!)"
         and a third asked, " Wouldn't the Army or ministry of defence
         restrict or cencor [sic] communication via e-mail between Israel
         and Arab countries?" Finally, someone asked "Does anyone know how
         they are connected?" which prompted a curious fellow user to do
         some investigation and report back: "Apparently both sites get
         their mail via a machine in the math and cs department of Kent
         State University in Ohio, USA, called"

         To subscribe to Palestine Net, e-mail to
         with the subject line empty and one-line in the body of the
         letter: subscribe to Palestine-Net "your name". To subscribe to
         their news broadcasts (Israeli, Palestinian, Arab), do the same
         to the address:

         To locate whether a country has an Internet connection, use the
         netfind service. Telnet to: and logon as
         "netfind". Choose the seed database lookup and type the name of
         the country you are looking for. Also, a PostScript map of e-mail
         connectivity is available via anonymous ftp from:;
         cd pub/doc/miscfile; get

         In response to the above discussion, a user from the Weizmann
         Institute, shared a letter he received from a professor in Iran
         looking for a text editor for Farsi:

              Dear Mr. [deleted],

                  I am in the process of developing FarsiTeX, based on
              tex--xet. I am in need of good text editor for that. I
              downloaded hed, it is fine for hebrew. But needs to have a
              completely different mapping for the keyboard. How can I do
              this? Is it possible to have the source?

              thanks a lot

              Dr. [deleted]
              Sharif Univ of Tech
              Tehran, Iran

         Direct e-mail between Rehovot and Tehran. Some people like to
         think about peace, academic cooperation across militant borders,
         and the power of computers to do good. What is this world coming

              Kehoe, Brendan P. 1992. _Zen and the Art of the Internet: A
              Beginner's Guide to the Internet_. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
              Prentice Hall. Electronic version (in PostScript only)
              available via anonymous ftp from:; cd

              Krol, Ed. 1989. _The Hitchhikers Guide to the Internet_.
              Electronic document available via anonymous ftp from:
    ; cd internet/documents/rfc; get rfc1118.txt.

              Krol, Ed. 1992. _The Whole Internet: User's Guide & Catalog_.
              Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.

              LaQuey, Tracy with Jeanne C. Ryer. 1993. _The Internet
              Companion: A Beginner's Guide to Global Networking_.
              Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

              Laurel, Brenda. 1991. _Computers as Theatre_. Reading, MA:
              Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

              Penkower, Yael. 1993. "Internet and Judaica: The Reference
              Librarian's Perspective." Unpublished paper presented at the
              28th Annual Convention of the Association of Jewish
              Libraries. June 20-23, 1993, New York City. You can reach
              the author at:

              Quarterman, John S. 1990. _The Matrix: Computer Networks
              and Conferencing Systems Worldwide_. Bedford, MA: Digital

         ------- 1993. Internet article in _Computerworld_, February 22.

              Steele, Guy L. Jr.. 1991. "Confessions of a Happy Hacker" in
              Eric Raymond, ed., _The Hacker's Dictionary_. Cambridge:
              The MIT Press.
            This paper is archived at the Global Jewish Information Network
                  Telnet to:, login as "jewishnet"
                    in the section Jewish Networking Papers
              End of part 3 of 3 - 344  lines

Dov Winer
Ben Gurion University
Internet : viner at
Date:         Tue, 10 Aug 1993 15:48:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      films

[Date:         Tue, 10 Aug 93 09:25:48 CDT
[From: Jerry Rosenberg 
[Subject:      films
[To: Holocaust Discussion List <>

GMK, Many of the videos I have were from Public Television, The Discovery
Channel, The Learning Channel and the Arts & Entertainment Channel. Some
were obtained from Zenger Video, which is a division of Social Studies
School Services, Culver City California. Another resource has been
Tamarelles International Films of Chico California. I would add three
videos to the list that are excellent and may be obtained from the Braun Center
for Holocaust Studies in NY--The Warsaw Ghetto, Lodz Ghetto and Teresianstadt.
the Model Ghetto.  The book you did with Leon Rappoport has been very useful.
Date:         Tue, 10 Aug 1993 15:49:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      films

[From: (David J. Diephouse)
[Subject: re:  films
[Date: Tue, 10 Aug 93 9:58:31 EDT

Jerry Rosenberg's list of films can be expanded almost indefinitely;
the filmography in Annette Insdorf's INDELIBLE SHADOWS:  FILM AND THE
HOLOCAUST is already somewhat dated (1983), but still useful (see also

Having taught a course on film and the Holocaust several times, I'd
suggest the following to supplement Rosenberg's list (which is a good
one).  Among documentaries, THE 81ST BLOW (Israel, 1975) is interesting
especially for the ways it contextualizes victims' experience using
perpetrators' sources (80% of the footage is, necessarily, Nazi).  I
also like WHO SHALL LIVE AND WHO SHALL DIE? (US,1981) as an example of
historical investigative reporting--though the lack of production values
lessens its impact on the average student.  THE WANNSEE CONFERENCE
(Germany, 1987) is interesting for its attempt to reconstruct an event
on the basis of a set of minutes (so that,for example, the elapsed time
of the film is exactly the same as that of the conference itself), but I'm
not sure it wholly succeeds.  KITTY: RETURN TO AUSCHWITZ (Britain, 1980) is
a very effective complement to MEMORANDUM, mentioned by Rosenberg.  Pierre
Sauvage's recent film on the rescue center of Le Chambon, WEAPONS OF THE
SPIRIT, is good; it might be paired with AS IF IT WERE YESTERDAY (Belgium,
1980), which is darker, more complex, and I think ultimately richer.  Then
there are a number of films that make effective use of Jewish sources,
notably IMAGE BEFORE MY EYES (US,1980), a rich recreation of interwar
Jewish culture in Poland, and PARTISANS OF VILNA (US, 1986).  Among the
mega-documentaries, I think the best--better than SHOAH, which is quite a
bit less than the sum of its parts--is Marcel Ophul's THE MEMORY OF
JUSTICE (1976), though finding a copy may be a challenge.  There's also
Ophuls' more recent film on the Klaus Barbie case (HOTEL TERMINUS).

Among the host of feature films, my students have found the following
especially thought-provoking:  THE REVOLT OF JOB (Hungary, 1983), THE BOAT
IS FULL (Switzerland, 1981), THE SHOP ON MAIN STREET (Czech, 1965), and
MR. KLEIN (France, 1976).  I also think highly of DAVID (Germany, 1979),
though students don't seem to get it, and DIAMONDS OF THE NIGHT (Czech,
1964)--probably too much an "auteur" film to be of any classroom use.
Date:         Tue, 10 Aug 1993 16:25:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re: Our Lament

[Date: Tue, 10 Aug 1993 11:01:51 -0700 (PDT)
[From: "Sam Edelman, Ph.D." 
[Subject: Re: Out Lament

I read with some feelings of both pain and sorrow Cecelia's long post.  There
is no question that the Holocaust has dealt poorly with Jews and other victims
as well as with a generation of German children of Nazis and children of German
and German American bystanders.  Prejudice is never anice thing whether it
comes from the victim or the perpetrator.  My wife and I have written a paper
for a conference which argues that ethnocentrism while negative in most aspects
sometimes is a necessary method of protecting a social group under threat.  It
was used by Jewish victims of the Nazis to help form a community against the
Nazi oppression and the oppression of other European antisemities including
some Poles.  Those mechanism used by survivors to survive, ie. prejudicial
remarks and allness statements about others are important signposts for
scholars like my wife and myself.  In Cecelias earlier posting about
transcribing a survivor tape which includes these statements I see no problem
here--in fact I see important ethnographic information that when couple with an
analysis of other survivor statements gives a clear picture of victim response
mechanisms..... Now as to Cecelia's other problem of prejudice focused on
German Americans--I certainly feel your pain and anguish.  You have felt in a
small way what Jews have felt for centuries.  It is written in the Tanach that
the sins of the fathers are visited on the generations that follow.  Guilt is
an interesting response.  In many ways the Germans unlike the Austrians have
until recently begun the process of expiating their guilt through good works
and reparations to Israel and the survivor community.  The Neo-Nazis of todays
Germany come for the most part from the old East germany who refuse like
Austria to acknowledge their complicity and their guilt and now they are
reaping the whirlwind.  Cecelia, there will never be a happy ending to the pain
both you and I suffer from different experiences. The guilt that you take with
you may never be expiated in your life time just as the memory of the pain
inflicted on my people must never be forgotten...In a way were are forever tied
together and we must all learn to live with that tie so that we can fight any
future attempts to do again what was done in the middle of this century.  I
know that what I write is no comfort to you or to me. But what is is.  Sam
Edelman (
Date:         Wed, 11 Aug 1993 10:57:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      re: Films

[Date:         Tue, 10 Aug 93 17:54 CDT
[Subject:      Re: films

Thanks for the information on the sources for videos and also the note on
the book.  We will have a new edition out probably dec or Jan/February
in paperback.  It will have three additional chapters.  gmk
Date:         Wed, 11 Aug 1993 11:02:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Films on 'euthanasia' programme

[Date: Wed, 11 Aug 93 09:05:38 +0100
Subject: Films on 'euthanasia' programme

I am putting together a resource list on the 'euthanasia' programme and
would be very grateful to receive items for inclusion on it. I'm especially
interested in receiving details of films and video tapes.
Peter Lindley
Centre for the Study of Propoganda
University of Kent
Date:         Wed, 11 Aug 1993 15:06:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Euthanasia

[Date:         Wed, 11 Aug 93 15:10:01 EDT
[From: Bob Herzstein 
[Subject:      Euthanasia
[To: Peter Lindley 

The most important Nazi propaganda effort in this area is the very duplicitous
and clever "Ich Klage An," 1941. A complete print is available in the Library o
Congress Motion Picture Section (contact Patrick Sheehan). I treat the subject
at some length in my book THE WAR THAT HITLER WON. Good luck. By the way, the
expert on the euthanasia program itself is Dr. Henry Friedlander, at the Judaic
Studies department at Brooklyn College, NYC...
Date:         Thu, 12 Aug 1993 11:50:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      H-Net List Offerings

         H-Net Announces 20 Scholarly Lists for Historians
              August 11, 1993           please circulate
         Dramatic changes are underway in the electronic
    communications infrastructure worldwide, especially the
    Internet and Bitnet systems that link academic computers
    together.  H-Net is an initiative of the History department
    at the University of Illinois, Chicago, to assist historians
    to go on-line, using their personal computers. .
         H-Net sponsors 20 electronic discussion groups or
    "lists."  Subscribers automatically receive messages in
    their computer mailboxes. These messages can be replied to,
    saved, discarded, downloaded to a PC, copied, printed out,
    or relayed to someone else.  The lists are free newsletters
    that are published daily.  Currently our lists have 3,000+
    subscribers (2,500+ separate people) in 35 countries. They
    receive an average of 3 messages a day. Membership is open
    to any scholar or graduate student, and is free.  (We
    especially welcome librarians and archivists.) Each list is
    moderated by a historian and has a board of editors.  The
    moderators control the flow of messages and reject those
    unsuitable for a scholarly discussion group.

      The primary purpose of each list is to enable scholars to
    easily communicate current research and teaching interests;
    to discuss new approaches, methods and tools of analysis; to
    share information on electronic databases; and to test new
    ideas and share comments on current historiography.  Each
    list is especially interested in methods of teaching history
    in diverse settings. The lists feature dialogues in the
    discipline. They publish book reviews, job announcements,
    syllabi, course outlines, class handouts, bibliographies,
    listings of new sources, guides to online library catalogs
    and archives, and reports on new software, datasets and
    cd-roms. Subscribers write in with questions, comments, and
    reports, and sometimes with mini-essays of a page or two.
    Most of the lists have no chronological or geographical
    limits. We need editors for new lists; if you are
    interested, send a vita to Richard Jensen at H-NET@uicvm.

        The H-Net lists in operation [or starting soon] are:
    1. H-Albion     British and Irish history
    2. H-AmStdy     American Studies
    3. H-CivWar     US Civil War
    4. H-Diplo      diplomatic history, foreign affairs
    5. H-Durkhm     Durkheim Society Newsletter; social thought
    6. H-Ethnic     ethnic & immigration history
    7. H-Film       scholarly studies & uses of media [Sept 1]
    8. H-Judaic     Judaica and Jewish Studies [Aug 15]
    9. H-Labor      labor history
   10. H-LatAm      Latin American History
   11. H-Law        legal and Constitutional history
   12. H-News       general history news & announcements [Sept 1]
   13. H-Pol        US Politics [Sept 1]
   14. H-Rhetor     history of rhetoric & communications
   15. H-Rural      rural and agricultural history
   16. H-South      US South
   17. H-Teach      teaching college history
   18. H-Urban      urban history
   19. H-Women      women's history
   20. HOLOCAUS     Holocaust studies; anti-semitism

       To subscribe: send this message to LISTSERV@UICVM

            SUB  xxxxxx Firstname Surname, Yourschool

        where xxxxxx = list name; for example,

            sub H-Albion Leslie Smith, Southern Kansas U

       [do not use quotes around "name"; abbreviate University to
       U; you have only 45 spaces for Firstname-Lastname-School]
            if you use internet send the message to

Date:         Thu, 12 Aug 1993 11:52:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      History Lists

    "H-Net Guide to History Lists on Bitnet/Internet"
         from H-Net@uicvm.bitnet      August 11, 1993

    -- list  address     theme of list
    [  listname@node (where node = name of computer host) ]
                 ** = H-Net sponsored list
    1. AfAm-L@UMCVMB     African-American Research
    2. AfAS-L@KENTVM     African American Studies and Librarianship
    3. AfroAm-L@harvarda African-American Studies
    4. Ancient and Medieval History
       a)   AGORA = e-journal in classics
       b) Ancien-L@ULKYVM   History of the Ancient Mediterranean
       c) AnSax-L@WVNVM     Anglo Saxon [very active, technical]
       d)  Bryn Mawr Classics Review (ejournal)
       e)  Bryn Mawr Medieval Review (ejournal)
       f) Classics@UWAVM    Classical Greek and Latin [very active]
       g) IBYCUS-L@uscvm    Ibycus (Ancient Greek)
       h)      Medieval seminar topics
       i) IOUDAIOS@yorkvm1  First Century Judaism
       j) MedFem-L@UWAVM    Medievalist feminists
       k) MEDIEV-L@ukanvm   Medieval
       l) MedSci-L@brownvm  Medieval and Renaissance science
       m) MEDTEXTL@uiucvmd  Medieval Texts, Philology, Codicology
    5. AHC-L@DGOGWDG1    (European) Association for History & Computing
    6. AmerCath@UKCC     History of American Catholicism
    7. Amerstdy@miamiu   American Studies
    8. AmWest-H@uscvm    American West
    9.    Archives [very active]
   10. ASEH-L@TTUVM1     Am. Soc. of Environmental Historians
   11.   French culture  [send e-note to ]
   12. British lists at
       Essex-history   Historical data archives at ESRC
       history-vasco   15-16c Portugal
       history-econ    Economic history; excellent newsletter
       history-ihr     Intitute of Historical Reseach
       humgrad         Graduate students in Humanities
       a) for all British lists, send e-note (no subject) to

          containing the single line:
          JOIN list Firstname Surname
          (i.e. JOIN History-econ Richard Jensen
          to exit:
          LEAVE History-methods
       b) if you are in Britain, mail to
   13. C18-L@psuvm       18th century history & culture [active]
   14. Caduceus          medical history; email to ibowman@utmbeach
   15. CANALC@YORKVM1    Latin America and the Caribbean
   16. China@PUCC        Chinese Studies
   17. CLIONET           Australian monthly e-newsletter
       reach it through HNSOURCE (see #59 below) under
       RESOURCES/ Europe and Asia
   18. CTICH             Computers in teaching history
   19.  German lit & culture [send
       e-note to owner at: ]
   20. EarAm-L@KENTVM    Society of Early Americanists [low activity]
   21. EMedCh-L@uscvm    early medieval China
   22. EMHist-L@uscvm    early modern Europe
   23. EPP-L@BUACCA      Albert Einstein Papers and Discussion
   24. Erasmus           Renaissance & Reformation Studies
       send enote to [internet address]
   25. ESPORA-L@ukanvm   Spain/Portugal
   26. EthnoHis@HEARN    Ethnohistory
   27. Ficino@UTORONTO   FICINO Renaissance/Reformation
   28. FranceHs@UWAVM    French history [low activity]
   29. GrmnHist@uscvm    German history
   30. H-Albion@uicvm    ** British History
   31. H-AmStdy@uicvm    ** American Studies
   32. H-CivWar@uicvm    ** US Civil War
   33. H-Diplo@uicvm     ** US diplomatic; foreign affairs
   34. H-Durkhm@uicvm    ** European social thought
   35. H-Ethnic@uicvm    ** Ethnicity, immigration
   36. H-Film@uicvm      ** scholarly studies & uses of media [Sept 1]
   37. H-Judaic@uicvm    ** Judaica and Jewish Studies [Aug 15]
   38. H-Labor@uicvm     ** Labor History
   39. H-Law@uicvm       ** US legal & constitutional
   40. H-LatAm@uicvm     ** Latin American
   41. H-News@uicvm      ** general history news & announcements [Sept 1]
   42. H-Pol@uicvm       ** US Political History [Sept 1993]
   43. H-Rhetor@uicvm    ** History of Rhetoric
   44. H-Rural@uicvm     ** Rural, agricultural history
   45. H-South@uicvm     ** US South
   46. H-Teach@uicvm     ** Teaching History
   47. H-Urban@uicvm     ** Urban History
   48. H-Women@uicvm     ** Women's History
   49. HOLOCAUS@uicvm    ** Holocaust studies, anti-Semitism
   50. HABSBURG@purccvm  Austrian History since 1500
   51. HISLAW-L@ulkyvm   History of Law (Feudal, Common, Canon)
   52. HISTEC-L@ukanvm   History of Evangelical Christianity
   53. history@psuvm     Generic history [active; semi-pop]
   54. HNSOURCE          history gopher service at U Kansas (="MALIN")
       a) the menu option RESOURCES: DATA BASES includes direct access to
          databases, including CARL (periodical literature) and LOCIS
          (Library of Congress catalog)
       b) Byrd Historical Data Archives (e-texts)
          use gopher through HNSOURCE under RESOURCES/America
       c) GHETA             History ftp service at U of Groningen
          reach it from HNSOURCE under RESOURCES/ Europe and Asia
       d) Mississippi State History Data Archive
          via HNSOURCE under RESOURCES/America
   55. HOPOS-L@UKCC      History of Philosophy of Science [active]
   56. HOST              History of Science & Tech (ejournal)
       contact editor at
   57. HTech-L@SIVM      History of Technology [active]
   58. HUMANIST@brownvm  Humanists [active, famous]
   59. IEAHCnet@uicvm    ** Early American History & Culture (fall 93)
   60. Islam-L@ulkyvm    History of Islam
   61. L-CHA@uqam        Canadian Historical Association
   62. LASNET@EMX.UTEXAS.EDU Latin American Studies Network
   63. MCLR-L@MSU        Latino Research
   64. MilHst-L@ukanvm   Military History [active; semi-popular]
   65. MUSEUM-L@UNMVMA   Museums
   66. OMHR              Online Modern History Review
       send e-note to editor at
   67. ORTRAD-L@MIZZOU1  Oral traditons
   68. Poli-Sci@RUTVM1   Political Science Digest
   69. [Internet]  US Presidential History, [Bitnet]          1789-1992
   70. PSRT-L@MIZZOU1    Pol Science/ constl law book reviews [good]
   71. PUBLHIST          Public history list
       To subscribe, send to MAILSERV@HUSC3.HARVARD.EDU
       SUBSCRIBE PUBLHIST Firstname Surname
   72. RENAIS-L@ULKYVM   Renaissance
   73. Roots-L@NDSUVM1   Genealogy [very active]
   74. SEAsia-L@MSU      Southeast Asian Studies
   75. SEdit-L@UMDD      Editors of scholarly editions
   76. Shaker@ukcc       Shakers
   77. SHARP-L@IUBVM     History of Authorship, Reading
   78. SHOTHC-L@SIVM     History of Computing
   79. T-Assist@UNMVMA   Teaching assistants (all departments)
   80. Victoria@IUBVM    Victorian studies
   81. VWar-L@UBVM       Vietnam War [history, pop culture very active]
   82. WHIRL@PSUVM       Women's History in Rhetoric & Language
   83. World-L@UBVM      World History [active, non-eurocentric]
   84. WWII-L@UBVM       World War II  [active]
 A. How to subscribe to a LIST via Bitnet (use H-TEACH as example).
    Do NOT send a message directly to the list. Instead send it to
    the "listserv" that handles the list. (LISTSERV with one "E").
    The Listserv program on the mainframe computer at the other end
    will figure out your e-address from the message header it gets
    from your computer.  The Internet addresses above are the longer
    more complicated ones; most computer centers treat them the same
    as Bitnet addresses; if you get an error message check with your
    local guru.
    1.  Thus to subscribe to H-TEACH (that is, H-TEACH@uicvm)
       send a message to its listserv, which will be
       for H-TEACH@uicvm. (see part B below for how to address it)
       --no "subject" line
       --the text of your message should be:
       SUBSCRIBE H-TEACH Your Name School
       for example:
       SUBSCRIBE H-TEACH Leslie Jones, U of Southern Nebraska
    2. To unsubscribe:
       send this message to Listserv@node
       UNSUBSCRIBE listname Your Name
    3. To put messages on hold for a while, send this message to
       SET listname NOMAIL
       that is, SET H-TEACH NOMAIL
       a) To resume messages:     SET listname MAIL
 B. How to post a message for everyone on list
    (be sure to sign it, & give your own e-address; and keep a
    copy--most lists do not automatically send you a copy of your
    own message.)
    send it to listname@node     that is, H-TEACH@uicvm
    --depending on your mainframe, you may have to use one of
    several variants: check with your computer center on how to send
    an email message to a bitnet address
              one variant: (IBM CMS mainframes)
                           NOTE H-TEACH@uicvm
          three more variants (VAX VMS systems)
Date:         Fri, 13 Aug 1993 09:36:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      H-NET JOB GUIDE 8/12/93

H-Net Job postings
August 12, 1993

#1  Smithsonian Institution Libraries
#2  Polish History-U of Toronto
#3  American History--SUNY at Stony Brook
#4  European Studies--Queensland University of Technology, Australia
#5  Architecture Librarian--Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
#6  African-American Studies--North Carolina State University
#7  Librarian--Minnesota State U System-Akita Campus, Japan
#8  Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowships--U of Pennsylvania
#9  Ethnic Studies--U of Utah



The Smithsonian Institution Libraries (SIL) is seeking an experienced
*Librarian*, GS-1410-9 - $27,789 per year to provide reference, research, and
bibliographic services within the branch libraries of the Anacostia Museum and
National Museum of American History (NMAH). Participates in developing and
improving the library collection (i.e. African-American research) to meet the
research requirements of the Anacostia and NMAH staff. Screens and reviews
publishers' literature, reference bibliographies, and applies professional
bibliographic knowledge to assess the value of publications. Maintains a
current knowledge of developments in the field and the subjects covered by the
branch through individual study, research, and attendance at professional
seminars and conferences. Performs literature searches in specialized
disciplines which may require online or manual searches of the literature,
evaluation of sources, and analysis and synthesis of data. *QUALIFICATIONS*:
Knowledge of the theories, principles, practices, and techniques of
librarianship. Knowledge of African-American history or specialized fields
such as Anthropology, Sociology, political science, urban studies, American
studies. Skill using computerized bibliographic databases such as Dialog or
CD-ROM. Knowledge of printed or electronic bibliographic tools sufficient to
provide reference and research services and collection development such as
America, History and Life, Aqricola or Dissertation Abstracts. Applicant must
be U.S. citizen. For complete application package call (202) 287-3102 (our
24-Hour Touchtone Activated/Automated Request Center), press 9, and request
Vacancy Announcement #93-3100Z. All applications must be post marked by
September 8, 1993. The Smithsonian Institution is an Equal Opportunity

Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Phil Mueller
Tulane Graduate School
Xavier Univ. of LA History Dept.


   Position: History
Institution: U of Toronto
   Location: Canada

History: Polish History. The Department of History at the
University of Toronto invites applications for a tenure-track
position at the rank of Associate Professor in Polish History,
effective 1 July, 1994. Applicants must have a completed Ph.D.
and an excellent record in teaching and scholarly research.
The successful candidate will be expected to teach a junior
level and a senior level/graduate level course in Polish
History and a third course in East European History. Salary
will be commensurate with experience. Send applications, a
curriculum vitae and ask three referees to write letters to
Professor R.C. Brown, Chair, Department of History, University
of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, M5S 1A1. Applications will close
on 15 October, 1993. The University of Toronto encourages
applications from qualified women or men, members of visible
minorities, aboriginal peoples and persons with disabilities.


   Position: History: American History
Institution: SUNY at Stony Brook
   Location: New York

History: American History. Two tenure track positions: one in
18th through 19th century; one in late 19th through 20th
century. One appointment will be an Assistant Professor, the
other an Associate Professor. Candidates are encouraged to
apply for either position at the level for which they qualify.
We are particularly interested in African-American history in
either period. Additional areas of interest include politics
and society and legal/Constitutional history. Ph.D. required.
Teaching at graduate and undergraduate levels; strong
commitment to research, a publication record, as well as
evidence of teaching ability are required. The positions are
contingent on budgetary constraints and administrative
approval. Letters of application, dossiers, and references to
Professor William R. Taylor, Chair U.S. History Search, SUNY
Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-4348. Candidates may
be interviewed at the AHA meeting in January, 1994.
Application deadline: December 1, 1993. SUNY Stony Brook is an
equal opportunity, affirmative action employer.


   Position: Assistant Professor of European Studies
Institution: Queensland University of Technology
   Location: Australia

(Modern or Contemporary History)

Queensland University of Technology (QUT) seeks an outstanding
modern or contemporary European historian to take a leading
role in the development of programs in humanities.

The School of Humanities is part of the Faculty of Arts formed
when the University was restructured at the end of 1990. The
Faculty also includes the Academy of Arts and the School of
Social Science and currently offers a variety of courses at
the undergraduate level and is expanding its postgraduate

In 1993, the School of Humanities introduced a Bachelor of
Arts degree and the appointee, as a senior member of the
school, will play a major facilitative role in the development
of that degree. The School also offers minor and major studies
in Bachelor degree programs in Education, Nursing and Justice
Studies. There are 25 academic and four administrative staff
within the School. Academic staff have interests and expertise
in Asia-Pacific, Australian and European studies and applied
philosophy. Over the next few years, the School will develop
new undergraduate and postgraduate courses.

Women are under-represented at QUT at senior level; therefore
suitably qualified women are encouraged to apply.

QUALIFICATIONS/SKILLS: Disciplines represented in the European
Studies program include history, politics, literature,
geography, and French and German languages. The School now
seeks a historian with a strong research and teaching record
to take a lead in the field of modern European studies. A
specialist in western Europe in any period since the sixteenth
century would best suit the present teaching program. But
School expansion over the next three years will permit some
flexibility in future offerings. Outstanding candidates with
expertise in eastern Europe will therefore receive full

CONDITIONS: Tenurable appointment is available at the level of
Associate Professor ($US40,778 to $US44,925; $AUD60,475 to
$AUD66,625) per annum). Conditions include subsidised
superannuation, relocation assistance and professional
experience leave.

FURTHER INFORMATION: Duty statement and selection criteria for
the position and information on the University is available
from QUT Personnel Department, telephone 61 7 856 4002 or
facsimile 61 7 856 0273. For further information on the
position contact Professor Cameron Hazlehurst on 61 7 864 4769
or facsimile 61 7 864 4766.

APPLICATIONS: Applications and envelopes should quote 327/93.
Applications should

systematically address the selection criteria and include
evidence of academic qualifications, experience and teaching
evaluations plus the names, addresses, telephone and facsimile
numbers of five academic and professional referees.
Applications should reach the Personnel Director QUT Locked
Bag No 2 Red Hill Queensland 4059 Australia by 24 September
1993. Smoking is not permitted in QUT buildings or vehicles.

An Equal Opportunity Employer.


   Position: Library: Architecture Librarian
Institution: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
   Location: New York

Library: Architecture Librarian. Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute Libraries is seeking a creative, innovative
librarian who is comfortable working in a computer-intensive
environment and capable of applying new information
technologies to the libraries' architecture services.
Reporting to the Head of Collection Development/Reference
Services, responsibilities include development of the
libraries' collections and services (especially electronic)
for the School of Architecture, reference service, database
searching, bibliographic instruction, continued professional
development, and service of library and university committees
and task forces. Qualifications: an MLS from an ALA accredited
program, interest and ability to work with architecture and
technical materials, ability to work effectively with the
public, excellent oral and written communications skills,
familiarity with library automation applications, ability to
work in a rapidly changing environment, and commitment to
professional development. Preferred qualifications are
architecture reference experience in an academic library;
bachelor's or advanced degree in architecture, art history, or
related discipline; experience in collection development and
bibliographic instruction; and experience with on-line
searching, CD/ROM's, and the use of Internet Resources. Salary
is $25,000 minimum, dependent upon qualifications and
experience. Application review will begin August 15. Send
letter of application, resume, and the names of three
references to: Barbara Lockett, Director of Libraries, Folsom
Library, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York
12180. Rensselaer is an AA/EEO employer. Applications of
minorities and women are particularly encouraged.


   Position: Assistant -- Associate Professor, African-     American Studies
Institution: North Carolina State University
   Location: North Carolina


Assistant or Associate Professor
of African-American Studies

The African-American Studies Program at North Carolina State
University invites applications and nominations for a tenure
track Assistant or Associate Professorship in African-American
Studies. African-American Studies at North Carolina State is
offered through the Division of Multidisciplinary Studies in
the College of Humanities and Social Sciences.

Candidates must have demonstrated abilities, skills, and
knowledge to teach courses which include: Introduction to
African-American Studies and Critical Issues in the
African-American Community. Applicants must hold the Ph.D.
degree by the time of appointment. A nine unit teaching load
in each of the Fall and Spring semesters is typical.

Selected individuals are expected to (1) teach undergraduate
and graduate courses in African-American Studies and in one's
chosen area of expertise; (2) advise students in the
African-American Studies Program; (3) perform service to the
program, university and community; (4) engage in academic

The effective date of appointment will be at the beginning of
the Spring semester, 1994.

Persons interested in this position should send a letter of
interest, summary of teaching and research experience, along
with current curriculum vitae. Applicants should request that
letters of reference from at least three individuals be sent
directly to NCSU. Review of applications will begin October 1,
1993 and will continue until the position is filled.

Applications should be sent to:

Thomas N. Hammond, Director
African-American Studies Program
Box 7107
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7107



   Position: Librarian
Institution: Minnesota State U System-Akita Campus
   Location: Japan



The Minnesota State Universities invite applications for the
position of Librarian at the MSU-Akita Campus, Yuwamachi,
Akita Prefecture, in beautiful northern Japan. MSU-Akita
enrolls 375 Japanese students and 70 American students.
MSU-Akita is in its third year of offering English As A Second
Language and general education coursework to the Japanese
students who are preparing to transfer to MSUS institutions.
American students study the Japanese language and culture in
addition to general education courses.

Position Responsibilities: Administer overall library
operation, including acquisition, catalog processing and data
maintenance and reference; oversee the computer lab and other
learning-assistance facilities housed in the library; manage
annual library budget; develop, teach/coordinate an
introduction to the library course (one credit course); and
other library functions as needed.

Required Qualifications: Master's degree in Library Science;
Fluency in English; Minimum five years' experience in various
aspects of small academic library management.

Desirable Qualifications: The ideal candidate will have
experience in working with CD ROM and other current
electronically-based library resources as well as current
audio-visual and computer-interactive learning resources; the
ability to live and work successfully in both Japanese and
American cultural milieus; and will possess inter-cultural
sensitivity and be fluent in spoken and written Japanese.

This is a faculty position with salary range set by faculty
collective bargaining agreement. An overseas supplement,
housing, and other benefits are provided. Salary will be
commensurate with education and experience. Position reports
to Academic Dean; position supervises library support staff
members. Position is a twelve-month position, anticipated to
start December 1993. Contracts are extended one year at a

Application deadline is September 15, 1993. Letter of
application, resume, and three letters of recommendation
addressing strengths relevant to position should be submitted

Dr. Ruth Forsythe
Executive Director for Minnesota State University-Akita
The Minnesota State Universities
555 Park Street--Suite 230
St. Paul, MN 55103

An Equal Opportunity Educator and Employer.
Women and minorities encouraged to apply.


   Position: Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowships
Institution: U of Pennsylvania
   Location: Pennsylvania


Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowships
in the Humanities

For younger scholars who, by September 30, 1994, will have
held the Ph.D. for not fewer than three and not more than
eight years. Research proposals are invited in all areas of
humanistic studies except educational curriculum-building and
performing arts. Preference is given to proposals that are
interdisciplinary and to candidates who have not previously
utilized the resources of this university and whose work would
allow them to take advantage of the research strengths of the
institution and to make contributions to its intellectual
life. The award carries an annual stipend of $30,000, as well
as a travel/research allowance. Completed applications must be
received by October 15, 1993. For further information and
applications, write to:

Chair, Humanities Coordinating Committee
c/o Dr. Debra M. Israel, Program Coordinator
16 College Hall
University Of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104-6378

An Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action Employer


   Position: Sociology -- Ethnic Studies
Institution: U of Utah
   Location: Utah

Sociology/Ethnic Studies: The University of Utah invites
applications for a tenure-track assistant professor, joint
appointment in the Department of Sociology and the Ethnic
Studies program, contingent on available funding. Tenure will
accrue in the Department of Sociology. The Ph.D. should be
completed by Fall 1994. Teaching responsibilities will be
divided between the Ethnic Studies program and the Department
of Sociology. The individual will offer classes in race and
ethnicity at the undergraduate and graduate level. Preferences
will be given to the individual whose research and teaching
interest emphasis is comparative/historical sociology of
Chicanos/Latinos. The University of Utah is a research and
teaching oriented institution, and candidates for the position
should have a well-defined research focus. Faculty in the
Department of Sociology are expected to teach one section of a
required undergraduate course per year. The appointment would
be effective July 1, 1994 and the individual would be expected
to participate in the academic program which normally begins
in the last week of September. The position is contingent on
available funding. Applicants should send a letter of
application, curriculum vitae, and the names of three
references to: Dr. Lee L. Bean, Chairperson, Department of
Sociology, 336 Social and Behavioral Science Building, The
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112. The closing
date is December 1, 1993, or when this position is filled. The
University is an AA/EEO employer and encourages applications
from women and minorities, and provides reasonable
accommodation to the known disabilities of applicants and

End of Job Posting 8/12/93

Respectfully submitted by

Paul Steele
H-Net Staff
Date:         Fri, 13 Aug 1993 11:38:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Our Lament

[Date: Fri, 13 Aug 1993 00:30:13 -0500 (EST)
[Subject: Re: Our Lament

I, like Sam, was very moved by your post Cecilia. Thankyou for sharing
your feelings and experiences with all of us.

Sam wrote:

>both you and I suffer from different experiences. The guilt that you take with
>you may never be expiated in your life time just as the memory of the pain
>inflicted on my people must never be forgotten...In a way were are forever tied
>together and we must all learn to live with that tie so that we can fight any
>future attempts to do again what was done in the middle of this century.  I
>know that what I write is no comfort to you or to me. But what is is.

There is an excellent study on "the capacity to acknowledge experience in
Holocaust survivors and their children." It's a study of 80 adult women
and their mothers that correlated the mothers' acknowledgement of experience
with the daughters'. The author states that the ability to symbolize and
communicate one's experiences and feelings...acknowledging and 'naming'
experiences are critical means by which one communicates with others and
makes sense of one's social world. The study is based on the idea of
'referential activity' as a process of making symbolic links between verbal
and nonverbal representations: i.e. between words and sensory, motoric,
temporal, and emotional experience which we store nonverbally - the
ability to link an experience to a word or symbol.

Cecelia shares the experience of many children of survivors, who grow up
feeling things they have no words for, and the confusion and pain this
can cause, as we search for the pieces of the puzzle that is ourselves.

Lucia Ruedenberg
New York University
Dept. of Performance Studies
Email: ruednbrg@ACFcluster.NYU.EDU
Date:         Fri, 20 Aug 1993 16:29:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Holocaust and rise of the State of Israel

Date: Fri, 20 Aug 1993 07:45:12 -0400
Subject: Holocaust and rise of the State of Israel
>To all members of the Holocaust list:
>       Perhaps some of you have read my volume The Jews Were Expendable (
>1983), the first overview of how the free world responded during the
>Holocaust. Next year, the same publisher (the Univ. of Illinois Press),
>will publish a collection of my essays and articles, written over the past
>decade or so, which seek to examine the nexus that exists between the
>Holocaust and the rise of the State of Israel.
>       That bond, I am convinced, is real, although many deny it or ignore
>it. I would appreciate hearing from anyone on the Holocaust list about this
>theme. Since my focus is historical, I am particularly interested in
>sources (primary, especially, as well as secondary) which touch upon this
>topic. I would appreciate all responses addressed to my home: 915 E. 17th
>St., Brooklyn, New York 11230. Thank you. Monty N. Penkower, Touro College.
Date:         Fri, 20 Aug 1993 16:35:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Hnet Job Guide 8/20/93

H-Net Job Guide
#1 Roman History--University of Washington
#2 American History--De Montfort University--England
#3 Library of Congress--Washington, D.C.
#4 American Social History--James Madison College at
   Michigan State University
#5 Humanities Consultant--Princeton University
#6 Grant and Fellowship Announcement--Yale University

**Roman History.  Visiting faculty position during the 1993-
94 academic year with the possibility of renewal for the
following academic year.  Starting September 1993 or January
1994.  Teaching experience and Ph.D. preferred.  To teach
advanced undergraduate courses in Roman history and surveys
of the ancient world.  Send letter of application and vita
to Professor Carol Thomas, Department of History, DP-20,
University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (FAX 206-543-
9451).  Priority will be given to applications received
before September 10, 1993.  The University of Washington is
building a culturally diverse faculty and strongly
encourages applications from female and minority candidates.


A Lectureship in American History at De Montfort University,
Leicester, England, will be advertised in the UK press next

The post will be in the Department of Historical and
International Studies, which is part of the School of Arts
and Humanities. Courses within the School are organised in
such a fashion that students can take a variety of pathways
to their degree, combining relevant courses towards
concentrations in Visual Arts, Art History, Media Studies,
English, History, Politics, Drama, Education, Contemporary
Asian Studies, Performing Arts, Arts management.  It is
expected that American Studies will shortly be confirmed as
an area of concentration within the Degree scheme.

The post requires particular expertise in domestic American
history of the 19th & 20th centuries.

Applicants should have completed/be near to completion of
their PhD. Research and publication have a high priority in
the Department.

The post should appear in the _Guardian_ of 10th August,
with a closing date for applications of 24 August.

Please alert anyone who may have an interest to check the


                         LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
                      Washington, DC 20540-2295
                     *** VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT***

               ^  Vacancy Announcement Number: 31094  ^
               ^     Opening Date: August 8, 1993     ^
               ^    Closing Date: September 9, 1993   ^
               ^                                      ^





Title/Grade/Series:     Administrative Librarian
                        Assistant Chief, Collections Management Division
                        GS-1410-14 (5721S)  $56,627 - $73,619
                        GS-1410-13 (10007S) $47,920 - $62,293

Position Location:      Collections Management Division,
                        Constituent Services, Thomas Jefferson

Type of Appointment:    Permanent

Number of Vacancies:    One


The Assistant Chief plans the long range program for the Division,
developing and recommending policies, preparing budget requests,
determining staffing requirements and developing the annual
management plan. Administers and manages the day-to-day operation
of the Division, including the delivery of collections to readers;
collections arrangement, storage, security, access and
preservation; and collections control and tracking. Plans for the
relocation of all collections throughout the Library's buildings.
Directs and manages a diverse staff, carrying out the full range of
supervisory responsibilities, with special emphasis on recruitment
and placement, training and development, performance evaluation and
recognition. Monitors and analyzes trends in information technology
related to the management of Library collections and implements
local applications. Represents the Division as an authority in the
field of collections management.


One year of specialized experience at the next lower grade in the
Federal Service or at a comparable level of difficulty outside the
Federal Service which demonstrates a MINIMUM LEVEL of proficiency
in each of the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) listed below.
For the GS-14 position, at least one year of the required
experience must have been equivalent to the GS-13 level. For the
GS-13 position, at least one year of the required experience must
have been equivalent to the GS-12 level.


Quality ranking factors are presented in ALL CAPS.  The statements
beneath each factor relate each factor to specific duties of the

       strategic and operational plans as a basis for identifying and
       allocating resources.

       -- to direct the workforce in accomplishing the work of the

       MANAGEMENT -- to administer and manage the programs and
       operations of the division.

       WRITING -- to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of
       division programs and services.

       to represent the division and its programs and services.


simply repeat entries from the SF-171 in addressing each KSA, but
should elaborate on any specific experience (as an employee or
volunteer), training, educational courses, and awards that
demonstrate possession of the identified KSAs.


Applicants are first assessed against the minimum qualification
requirements for the position.  To be minimally qualified,
applicants must demonstrate a MINIMUM level of competence in the
knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required to perform the
duties of the position, and must have the length of time and level
of education and/or experience as specified in the announcement.
Applicants who are minimally qualified will be further evaluated to
determine the degree to which they possess the KSAs identified as
quality ranking factors.  These KSAs are assigned values for the
purposes of rating.  This rating process will determine who will be
referred to the selecting official for further consideration.


Sensitive position requiring appropriate security clearance.

* HOW TO APPLY: Submit a Standard Form 171, Application for     *
* Federal Employment, and all required attachments as described *
* in this Announcement to:                                      *
*                     LIBRARY OF CONGRESS                       *
*               HUMAN RESOURCES OPERATIONS OFFICE               *
*               101 INDEPENDENCE AVE., SE, LM 107               *
*                   WASHINGTON, DC  20540-2295                  *
*                                                               *
*     For more information on this Vacancy, please contact:     *
*           Annie Gartmon, Team 2 at 202-707-9147               *


    "Immigrants, Minorities, & American Pluralism"

    Temporary, one semester (Spring, 1994), full time
position at instructor or assistant professor level,
beginning January 1994.  Research leave replacement.  James
Madison College at Michigan State University seeks a broadly
trained social historian in American ethnic and racial group
history to teach a comparative social history course,
"Immigrants, Minorities, and American Pluralism" (two
sections).  Applicants should be Ph.D. or advanced Ph.D.
candidates and excellent teachers committed to the
comparative examination of ethnic and racial experience in
the United States.  This is full time appointment for Spring
1994 only.  Interested candidates should send cover letter,
curriculum vitae, at least 2 confidential reference letters,
scholarship sample, and graduate transcript by SEPTEMBER 30,
1993.  Send to: Dean William Allen, James Madison College,
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48825-1205.
(517) 353-6753.  MSU is an equal opportunity/ affirmative
action employer.

For additional information, E-mail: Kenneth.Waltzer@MSU.EDU

                                    James Madison College
                                    Michigan State U.
                                    (517) 353-3372


                        PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
                        PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY

                        Humanities Consultant

Information Services within Computing and Information
Technology at Princeton University seeks a consultant to
support faculty members and students in humanities
disciplines who use information technologies in teaching and
research.  The consultant will join the Instructional and
Media Services group.

Responsibilities include:  proactive consulting with
humanities departments and faculty about instructional and
research needs;  identifying, installing, testing, and
documenting software tools and applications; supporting
faculty and students in software use.  In addition, the
consultant will work closely with the language laboratory
coordinator on acquisition, installation, and use of
software and multimedia applications for language
instruction. The consultant will provide expertise in text
data bases and text analysis for faculty in all disciplines
and expertise in word processing and printing with non-Roman
characters and fonts.

Qualifications:  minimally, a Master's degree in a
humanities discipline. Excellent knowledge of one or more
foreign languages required;  knowledge of Chinese, Japanese,
Arabic and/or Hebrew preferred.  Strong background (at least
two years) supporting computer users in one or more of the
humanities disciplines taught at Princeton.  Knowledge of
both instructional and research applications is required, as
is the ability to work on multiple projects simultaneously
and to move easily among a variety of hardware platforms,
including Intel-based and Macintosh systems.  Must enjoy
outreach to faculty in humanities disciplines and must
possess superior oral and written communications skills.

Rank and salary commensurate with background and experience.
Send resume and letter of application to: Bruce Finnie,
Computing and Information Technology, 87 Prospect Avenue,
Princeton, NJ 08544 ( Applicants
should include a resume and the names, telephone numbers,
and addresses of at least three people who can comment on
the applicant's professional qualifications.  Princeton
University is an Equal Opportunity Employer and encourages
applications from women and minority candidates.


Grant and Fellowship Announcement

Pew Program in Religion and American History

1994-1995 National Fellowships and Grants for Ph.D.
Dissertations and First Books

sponsored by
Yale University
funded by
The Pew Charitable Trusts

Through a generous $1.5 million grant from The Pew
Charitable Trusts, Yale University has established a
nationally competitive fellowship and grant program to
stimulate and sustain scholarship in religion and American
history between 1600 and 1980.  Awards will be available to
scholars in the early stages of their careers who are
completing Ph.D. dissertations or first books.  The first
awards will be available for the 1994-95 academic year.

The Pew Program in Religion and American History emphasizes
direct aid to scholars through fellowships, research
grants, and conferences.  The awards are intended to foster
a sense of community and purpose among beginning scholars
and to stimulate a new body of historical literature on
crucial interrelationships between religion and America's
historical evolution between 1600 and 1980.  The program
represents a major partnership between The Pew Charitable
Trusts and Yale University to provide national leadership
in better understanding the dynamics of American history,
particularly the role religion may have played in its


The program is thoroughly non-sectarian and non-
denominational. Attention may be directed to the many
varieties of religion practiced in the United States
throughout its history, including native American religion,
Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, and occultism,
among others, and to their interrelationships with any and
all aspects of American life before 1980.

The program especially welcomes proposals that address
causal relationships between religion and American history.
These might include relationships between religion and
politics, economics, foreign policy, popular culture,
intellectual life, family life, public policy, education,
and public and private morality, just to name a few.

Graduate Student Fellowships

1994 Summer Fellowships

The program will award six $5000 fellowships for summer
1994. These fellowships are intended for students who have
completed preliminary stages of dissertation research.
They are intended to allow students to use the summer in
dissertation research and writing and to provide funds for
research whose costs would be otherwise prohibitive.  The
application deadline is October 15, 1993.

1994-1995 Dissertation Fellowships

The program will award eight one-year dissertation
fellowships of $12,000 each for the 1994-1995 academic
year.  These are intended as "final year" fellowships, and
applicants should explain why and how they expect to
complete their dissertations during the term of the
fellowship.  The application deadline is October 15, 1993.

Faculty Fellowships and Grants

1994-1995 Faculty Fellowships

The program will award six fellowships of $25,000 for the
1994-1995 academic year to faculty members completing first
books. Faculty members are expected to devote full time to
final research and writing and to be free from all teaching
and administrative responsibilities during the term of the
fellowship.  Their college or university is expected to
support the scholarly project by furnishing any supplement
necessary to provide a full year's salary. The application
deadline is October 15, 1993.

1994-1995 Faculty Research Grants

The program will award between five and ten research grants
for the 1994-1995 academic year.  The grants will range
from $2,500 to $10,000 and are intended to pay expenses for
research tasks such as unusual travel, the coding and
analysis of statistical materials, or unusual kinds of
research assistance.  The application deadline is October
15, 1993.


1993 Northeast Regional Faculty Conference

The Pew Program in Religion and American History will
sponsor a brief conference for faculty members interested
in the relationship between religion and American history.
The conference will be held at Yale on a Friday evening and
Saturday morning during the fall semester.  The program
will assume the costs of overnight lodging and meals for
all participants;  participants arrange their own
transportation to Yale.

1995 Fellows Conference

All recipients of fellowships and grants awarded by the Pew
Program in Religion and American History will attend a
conference at Yale University in the spring of 1995.  Both
graduate student and faculty fellows will make major
presentations based on the work undertaken during their
fellowship and also will discuss work by other fellows.  In
addition, at least one session will be devoted to problems
and opportunities in teaching.  Travel, room, and meal
expenses for the Fellows Conference will be assumed by the


Applications for the fellowships and grants offered by the
Pew Program in Religion and American History are available
at the Yale address below.  The application deadline for
all nationally competitive fellowships and grants is
October 15, 1993.

Faculty members living in the northeast area of the United
States should receive announcements of the Northeast
Regional Faculty Seminar during the early fall.  Anyone who
wishes to attend the faculty seminar should contact the
office of the Pew Program in Religion and American History
at Yale for information.  The conference is open to all
interested faculty members teaching American history.

Fellowship stipends will be paid directly to recipients
following certification of their status and other
requirements.  Research grants will be paid to the
recipients' home institutions, which will oversee
accounting procedures.


Fellowships and research grants are awarded on a nationally
competitive basis to graduate students and faculty
throughout the United States.  Recipients of fellowships
and grants may do their work wherever it is most feasible,
and there is no requirement for residence at Yale. However,
Yale University is eager to make its libraries and other
facilities available to Pew fellowship recipients, as it
does for all scholars.  Current Yale graduate students do
not participate in this national award competition and
apply instead for special fellowships available for them at

For applications and information write:

Pew Program in Religion and American History
Yale University
P. O. Box 2160 Yale Station
New Haven CT  06520-2160


The Pew Program in Religion and American History is
directed by Professors Jon Butler and Harry S. Stout.  The
program's project assistant is Scott Cormode.
End of Job Guide

Respectfully submitted by

Paul Steele
H-Net Staff
Date:         Tue, 24 Aug 1993 11:58:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      New H-Net list

                   History On-Line
               announces the debut of


                Beginning September 1

     H-FILM is a free international forum to promote
the scholarly study of film, television, and popular culture
           and the use of media in teaching

The primary purpose of H-FILM is to enable scholars to
communicate their current resarch and teaching interests
and test new ideas.  H-FILM will feature:

  --reviews of books, films, and documentaries;
  --announcements of grants, conferences, and jobs;
  --course outlines, class handouts, syllabi, and
  --discussion of film history, mass communication, and
    popular culture


  Send this message to
  or to LISTSERV@uicvm.BITNET:
     SUB H-FILM Firstname Surname, Your School

There are no dues or fees of any kind.  Subscribers only
need an address on Bitnet or Internet.


Send posts directly to:
   H-FILM@uicvm.BITNET or

To respond to an H-FILM post, use the REPLY command.

You can use your word processor to create a post. Simply
save your document as a plain ASCII file (a "text" or
"DOS" file) before uploading it and sending it.

H-FILM will be moderated to filter out extraneous messages
(like requests for subscription) and items that do not aid
the scholarly dialogue.  All contributions will be part of
the public domain and can be freely used, printed, copied
or retransmitted if credit is given the original author.

Send all questions to:
  Steven Mintz  
Date:         Thu, 26 Aug 1993 14:36:00 CST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Announcing H-Grad list


The primary purpose of H-Grad is to enable graduate students in
history-related fields to easily communicate about graduate
school -- taking courses, teaching, TAing, passing exams, writing
papers, and basic survival.  H-grad will facilitate discussion on
a wide range of issues involved in the graduate school experience
at the college and university level.  H-Grad will be especially
interested in all facets of graduate school, including life both
in and out of the department.  Special attention will be paid to
use of new technologies in history related fields.

H-Grad is co-edited by Kelly Ritcher (University of Illinois, Chicago)
and Robert A. Harris (Binghamton University, New York State).  H-Grad
has an editorial board entirely comprised of graduate students.  In order
that subscribers to this list may converse (and carp) openly, this
discussion group will be limited to people currently enrollled in a
graduate program.

H-Grad will publish tips basic to survival in graduate school,
such as:  how to choose and get along with your mentor, how to
navigate department politics, how to prepare for papers and
exams, dealing with living and working arrangements, managing a
loving relationship while in school, etc.  Additionally, special
attention will be given to coursework and teaching, such as
bibliographies, syllabi, historiography, etc.

H-Grad will also post announcements of conferences, fellowships,
grants, and jobs.  Subscribers will write in with questions,
comments, and reports.  H-Grad will carry publisher's
announcements of new books and will commission book reviews.


Subscription is free.  Subscribers will automatically receive
messages in their computer mailboxes.  Messages can be saved,
discarded, copied, printed out, or relayed to someone else.

To subscribe on BITNET, send this message to LISTSERV@uicvm:
sub H-Grad firstname surname, school
(example: sub H-Grad Jane Doe, Central Delaware State)

To subscribe on INTERNET, send the same message to

There are no dues or fees of any kind.  Subscribers only need an
address on Bitnet or Internet, which is provided by campus
computer centers.  Computer center consultants or the department
guru can explain the mysteries of communication via e-mail.


Contributions can be short questions or long documents.  Please
sign your name and email address to each contribution.  All posts
must be signed, and we will add the address if it is not
included.  Anonymous contributions may be accepted ONLY in
special cases.  All posts should be sent directly to
H-GRAD@uicvm.  To answer an H-GRAD post, use the REPLY command.
Long documents should be sent via Bitnet

Posts can be created outside the email environment using a word
processor.  If you have a word processor such as Word Perfect or
Microsoft Word, save the document as a plain ascii ("text" or
"dos") file before uploading and sending it.  The details of this
process are best described by your local guru.  Please do not
send binary or unencoded Macintosh files, as we have trouble
decoding them.

H-Grad will be moderated to filter out extraneous messages (like
requests for subscription) and items that do not belong on H-
Grad.  They may belong somewhere else, or in the comoderator's
judgement do not aid the dialogue.  The comoderators will not alter the
substance of anyone's missive.  All contributions to H-Grad will be
part of the public domain and can be freely used, printed, copied
or retransmitted if credit is given the original author.

Send all questions to Robert Harris 
Kelly Ritcher 
Date:         Sun, 29 Aug 1993 16:25:00 EST
Reply-To:     Holocaust List 
Sender:       Holocaust List 
Subject:      Teaching the Holocaust

Date: Fri, 27 Aug 1993 21:00:43 -0700 (PDT)
From: Steve Snow 

I've accidentally erased the message sent out regarding texts useful for
making the Holocaust meaningful in the classroom to non-whites, so I hope
this gets to the person who wrote that request.  It seems to me that the
types of readings which are most useful in helping people of different
racial or cultural backgrounds understand and relate to past events are
those texts which are most personal: letters, diaries, memoirs.  As a
white woman, I have found letters and speeches written by black
abolitionists, and Linda Brent's autobiography, for example, to have been
the most helpful to me in trying to understand the 19th century black
experience.  As for the Holocaust, I would suggest the following: Denise
Dufournier, "Ravensbrueck: The Women's Camp of Death"; Helen Epstein,
"Children of the Holocaust", NY: Putnam, 1979; Olga Lengyel, Five
Chimneys: The True Story of Auschwitz"; Dorothy Rabinovitch, ed, "New
Lives: Survivors of the Holocaust Living in America"; Lili Meier, "The
Auscwitz Album: A Book Based Upon an Album Discovered by a Concentration
Camp Survivor"; Sarah Moskovitz, Love Despite Hate: Child Survivors of the
Holocaust and their Adult Lives"; Isaiah Trunk, "Jewish Responses to Nazi
Persecution: Collective and Individual Behavior in Extremis".  These
citations are from a class I took a number of years ago from Pat Hurshell,
who occasionally teaches at the University of Washington, usually in the
Women Studies Dept.  I don't know if any of these are still in
print--maybe you could contact her if you have problems finding them.

Cheryl Wheeler
Western Wa. Univ.
From: Chris Amirault 


Back when we could choose our own third text for the second
semester comp class here, I taught Art Spiegelman's _Maus_
and it was a great book to teach. We spent a lot of time
talking about representing the Holocaust, and were able to
have fairly sophisticated discussions about such questions
through the book.

I am leading off my intro to lit class this semester with
Martin Amis's _Time's Arrow_, a novel that begins with the
main character's death and works backwards to his birth. What
is early on a brilliant, if clever, literary device becomes
astonishing as the backwards narrative logic makes sense to
the narrator (who's along for the ride) only as WW II
approaches, and the character (who has several names) is
revealed to be a doctor in Auschwitz/Birkenau. I have no idea
how the book will work in this class, but I found it to be
a revelation.

I have found that my students (middle class, mostly white,
top 33% or so of their HS classes) know nothing at the
Holocaust and yet are compelled to learn about it. As a result,
issues of representation and history become part of the
substance of the class. I am hoping, at least, that this
will be true this semester.

Chris Amirault                English Department -- Modern Studies        University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
414/372-5153                                   Milwaukee WI  53201

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