The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Last-Modified: 1997/11/19

                                                  [Page 245]

MAJOR-GENERAL ZORYA: Referring to the explanation concerning
the beginning of the attack on the Soviet Union, I should
like to remind the Tribunal that in the morning session of
the Tribunal on 30th November, 1945, the witness, Lahousen,
was interrogated and gave evidence of sufficient interest in
our case.

Inter alias, this witness, when enumerating the more
intimate members of the inner circle of Admiral Canaris,
Chief of the Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence Services
of the German Army, mentioned Pieckenbrock by name.

I present to the Tribunal as Exhibit USSR 228, the testimony
of the former Chief of Abwehr I of the German Military
Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence Services, Lieutenant
General Hans Pieckenbrock, of the former German Army, former
chief and colleague of Lahousen. Pieckenbrock gave this
testimony in the form prescribed by the laws of the Soviet
Union, in Moscow, on 12th December, 1945.

For the moment I should like to read a few lines only into
the record from Pieckenbrock's testimony, relating to the
matter which we are now investigating. These lines are on
Page 1 of the Russian text of his testimony and they are
marked with a red pencil. This Page 1 corresponds to Page 34
of the document book.

     "I must say," said Pieckenbrock, "that as early as
     August and September, 1940, the Foreign Army's Section
     of the General Staff of the Army began considerably to
     increase its intelligence assignments to the Abwehr
     (Counter-Intelligence) concerning the USSR. These
     assignments were unquestionably connected with the
     preparation of war against Russia.
     The more precise dates for Germany's attack on the
     Soviet Union I learned in January, 1941, from Canaris.
     I do not know what sources Canaris quoted, but he told
     me that the attack on the Soviet Union was fixed for
     15th May."
                                                  [Page 246]

The Soviet prosecution also has at its disposal the
testimony of the former chief of Abwehr III of the German
Military Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence Services,
Lieutenant General Franz von Bentivegni of the former German
Army, which was given by him on 28th December, 1945. I
present those documents as Exhibit USSR 230.

I shall at the same time also only read into the record only
those parts of Bentivegni's testimony underlined in red
pencil, which have a direct bearing on the beginning of
military preparations against the Soviet Union. These first
two excerpts of the testimony are on Page 37 in the document
book which is submitted to the Military Tribunal:

     "I learned first of Germany's preparation for a
     military attack on the Soviet Union in August, 1940,
     from the head of the German Intelligence and Counter-
     Intelligence Service, Admiral Canaris. In an unofficial
     conversation which took place in Canaris' office he
     told me that Hitler had started to take measures for an
     Eastern campaign, which he had spoken about as early as
     1938 in his speech at a meeting of Gauleiter in Berlin.
     Canaris said to me that these plans of Hitler's had now
     begun to take concrete form. This was evident from the
     fact that divisions of the German Army were being
     forwarded in large numbers from the West to the Eastern
     frontier and, in accordance with a special order by
     Hitler, were taking up positions from which to start
     the coming invasion of Russia."
(First two paragraphs of Bentivegni's testimony.)

And finally, in order to finish with the question of the
actual dates of Fascist Germany's military preparations for
the treacherous attack on the Soviet Union, I should like to
dwell for a moment on the testimony of General Mueller. This
testimony, dated 8th January, 1946, was, written in a camp
for prisoners of war. I present it to the Tribunal as
Exhibit USSR 149.

All the material to which I have so far referred emanated
from circles of the High Command of the German Army.

THE PRESIDENT: General, on this document of General Mueller,
is it apparent where that document was made and where
General Mueller is now?

MAJOR-GENERAL ZORYA: The photostat bears a date written in
General Mueller's hand. This date is 8th January, 1946.


MAJOR-GENERAL ZORYA: If I might have a look at the
photostatic copy which I have just presented to the
Tribunal, I would be able to tell you where the date is

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, but there are many prisoners-of-war
camps. We want to know which one and where it is.

MAJOR-GENERAL ZORYA: In a camp located near Moscow.

THE PRESIDENT: Has this document got any authenticating
signature on it at all? So far as we are concerned, isn't it
simply a photostatic copy of a writing by somebody?

MAJOR-GENERAL ZORYA: Mr. President, this document, like all
other documents which have been submitted so far by the
Soviet Delegation, is a non-certified photostatic copy.

Taking into consideration the wish of the Tribunal, and in
execution of this wish, the Soviet prosecution took measures
to ensure that only the originals of these documents or
documents whose authenticity is certified will be presented
in complete order to the General Secretary.

THE PRESIDENT: Can you tell us where the writer of the
document is now?

MAJOR-GENERAL ZORYA: I am hardly in a position to say more
than I have already done. If the Tribunal will permit me, I
can consult my colleagues,

                                                  [Page 247]
make inquiries, and report to the Tribunal as soon as
possible on the General's whereabouts.

THE PRESIDENT: Well, we will adjourn now. That will enable
you to consult your colleagues.

                    (A recess was taken.)

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