The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Shofar FTP Archive File: imt/tgmwc/tgmwc-03/tgmwc-03-24-08

Archive/File: imt/tgmwc/tgmwc-03/tgmwc-03-24-08
Last-Modified: 1999/08/01

This document contains a letter from the branch
office of the S.D. at Kochem to the S.D. at
Koblenz. The letter is dated 7th May, 1938, and
refers to the plebiscite of 10th April, 1938. It
refers to a letter previously received from the
Koblenz office and apparently is a reply to a
request for

                                      [Page 190]

information concerning the way in which people
voted in the supposedly secret plebiscite. It is
on Page 1 of Document R-142.

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, I am told that
that has been read before.

COLONEL STOREY: I did not know it had, if your
Honour pleases. We will then just offer it
without reading it.

With reference to National Socialism and the
contribution of the Sipo and the S.D., I refer
to an article of 7th September, 1942, which is
shown in Document 3344-PS. It is the first
paragraph, Volume 2. It is the official journal.

     "Even before the taking over of power, the
     S.D. had added its part to the success of
     the National Socialist Revolution. After
     the taking over of power, the Security
     Police and the S.D. have borne the
     responsibility for the inner security of
     the Reich, and have paved the way for a
     powerful fulfilment of National Socialism
     against all resistance."

In connection with the criminal responsibility
of the S.D. and the Gestapo, it will be
considered with respect to certain War Crimes
and Crimes Against Humanity, which were in the
principal part committed by the centralised
political police system. The development,
organisation and tasks have been considered
before. In some instances the crimes were
committed in co-operation or in conjunction with
other groups or organisations.

Now, in order to look into the strength of these
various organisations, I have some figures here
that I would like to quote to your Honour. The
Sipo and S.D. were composed of the Gestapo,
Kripo and S.D. The Gestapo was the largest, and
it had a membership of about 40,000 to 50,000 in
1934 and 1935. That is an error; it is 1943 to
1945. It was the political force of the Reich.

THE PRESIDENT: Did you say the date was wrong ?

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, it is '43 to '45.


THE TRIBUNAL: (MR. BIDDLE): Where are you
reading from ?

COLONEL STOREY: Document 3033-PS, and it is an
affidavit of Walter Schellenberg, one of the
former officials I referred to a moment ago.

I think, if your Honour pleases, in order to get
it in the record, I will read the whole
affidavit. Document 3033-PS, Exhibit USA 488:

     "The Sipo and S.D. were composed of the
     Gestapo, Kripo and S.D. In 1943-45 the
     Gestapo had a membership of about 40,000 to
     50,000 ; the Kripo had a membership of
     about 15,000 and the S.D. had a membership
     of about 3,000. In common usage, and even
     in orders and decrees, the term 'S.D.' was
     used as an abbreviation for the term 'Sipo'
     and 'S.D.' In most cases actual executive
     action was carried out by personnel of the
     Gestapo rather than of the S.D. or the
     Kripo. In occupied territories, members of
     the Gestapo frequently wore S.S. uniforms
     with S.D. insignia. New members of the
     Gestapo and the S.D. were taken on a
     voluntary basis. This has been stated and
     sworn to by me today the 21st November,
     1945."  And then, " Subscribed and sworn to
     before Lt. Harris, 21st November, 1945."

I think 1 ought to say here, if your Honour
pleases, that it is our information that a great
many of the members of the Gestapo were also

                                      [Page 191]
of the S.S. We have heard various estimates of
the numbers, but have no direct authority. oome
autnorities say as much as 75 per cent., but
still we have no direct evidence on that.

I now offer in evidence Document 2751-PS, which
is Exhibit USA 482. It is an affidavit of Alfred
Helmut Naujocks, dated 20th November, 1945. This
affidavit particularly refers to the actual
occurrences in connection with the Polish Border
incident. I believe it was referred to by the
witness Lahousen when he was on the stand.

     "I, Alfred Helmut Naujocks, being first
     duly sworn, depose and state as follows:
     1. I was a member of the S.S. from 1931 to
     igth October, 1944, and a member of the
     S.D. from its creation in 1934 to January,
     1941. I served as a member of the 'Waffen
     S.S.' from February, 1941, until the middle
     of 1942. Thereafter, I served in the
     Economic Department of the Military
     Administration of Belgium from September,
     1942 to September, 1944. 1 surrendered to
     the Allies on igth October, 1944,
     2. On or about 10th August, 1939, the Chief
     of the Sipo and S.D. Heydrich, personally
     ordered me to simulate an attack on the
     radio station near Gleiwitz, near the
     Polish border, and to make it appear that
     the attacking force consisted of Poles.
     Heydrich said, ' Practical proof is needed
     for these attacks of the Poles for the
     foreign Press, as well as for German
     propaganda purposes.' 1 was directed to go
     to Gleiwitz with five or six other S.D. men
     and wait there until I received a code word
     from Heydrich indicating that the attack
     should take place. My instructions were to
     seize the radio station and to hold it long
     enough to permit a Polish-speaking German,
     who would be put at my disposal, to
     broadcast a speech in Polish. Heydrich told
     me that this speech should state that the
     time had come for the conflict between
     Germans and Poles, and that the Poles
     should get together and smash down any
     Germans from whom they met resistance.
     Heydrich also told me at this time that he
     expected an attack on Poland by Germany in
     a few days.
     3. 1 went to Gleiwitz and waited there 14
     days. Then I requested permission from
     Heydrich to return to Berlin, but was told
     to stay in Gleiwitz. Between 25th and 31st
     August, I went to see Heinrich Mueller,
     head of the Gestapo, who was then nearby at
     Oppeln. In my presence Mueller discussed
     with a man named Mohlhorn plans for another
     border incident, in which it should be made
     to appear that Polish soldiers were
     attacking German troops. Germans in the
     approximate strength of a company were to
     be used. Mueller stated that he had 12 or
     13 condemned criminals who were to be
     dressed in Polish uniforms and left dead on
     the ground of the scene of the incident, to
     show that they had been killed while
     attacking. For this purpose they were to be
     given fatal injections by a doctor employed
     by Heydrich. Then they were also to be
     given gunshot wounds. After the incident,
     members of the Press and other persons were
     to be taken to the scene of the incident. A
     police report was subsequently to be
     4. Mueller told me that he had an order
     from Heydrich to make one of those
     criminals available to me for the action at
     Gleiwitz. The code name by which he
     referred to these criminals was 'Canned
     goods '.

     5. The incident at Gleiwitz in which I
     participated was carried out on the evening
     preceeding the German attack on Poland. As
     I recall, war broke out on 1st  September,
     1939. At noon on 31st August, I received by
     telephone from Heydrich the code word for
     the attack which was to take place at 8
     o'clock that evening. Heydrich said, 'In
     order to carry out this attack, report to
     Mueller for Canned Goods.' I did this and
     gave Mueller instructions to deliver the
     man near the radio station. I received this
     man and had him laid down at the entrance
     to the station. He was alive but he was
     completely unconscious. I tried to open his
     eyes. I could not recognise by his eyes
     that he was alive, only by his breathing. I
     did not see the shot wounds but a lot of
     blood was smeared across his face. He was
     in civilian clothes.
     6. We seized the radio station as ordered,
     broadcast a speech of three to four minutes
     over an emergency transmitter, fired some
     pistol shots and left."

And that was sworn to and subscribed before Lt.

The Gestapo and the S.D. carried out mass
murders of hundreds of thousands of civilians of
occupied countries as a part of the Nazi
programme to exterminate political and racial
undesirables, by the so-called Einsatz Groups.
Your Honour will recall evidence concerning the
activity of these Einsatz Groups ' or
Einsatzkommandos. I now refer to Document R-102.

If your Honour pleases, I understand Major Farr
introduced this document this morning, but I
want to refer to just one brief statement which
he did not include, concerning the S.D. and the
Einsatz Groups and Security Police. It is on
Page 4 of R-102.: Quoting:

     "During the period covered by this report
     the stations of the Einsatz Groups of the
     Security Police and the S.D. have changed
     only in the Northern Sector."

THE PRESIDENT: What was the document ?

COLONEL STOREY: R-102, which is already
introduced in evidence by Major Farr, and it is
in Volume 2 toward the end of the book.

THE PRESIDENT: I have a document here. Page 4,
is it?

C0L0NEL ST0REY: Page 4, Yes, Sir. There are two
reports submitted by the Chief of the Einsatz
Group A available. The first report is Document
L-180, which has already been received as
Exhibit USA 276.

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, will you not pass
quite so fast from one document to another ?

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, Sir, pardon me, Sir. L-180,
and I want to quote from Page 13. It is on Page
5 of the English translation. It is the
beginning of the first paragraph, near the
bottom of the page. Quoting:

     "In view of the extension of the area of
     operations and of the great number of
     duties which had to be performed by the
     Security Police, it was intended from the
     very beginning to obtain the co-operation
     of the reliable population for the fight
     against vermin ; that is, mainly the Jews
     and Communists."

And also in that same document, Page 30 of the
original, Page 8 of the English translation.

     "From the beginning it was to be expected
     that the Jewish problem could not be solved
     by pogroms alone."
THE PRESIDENT: I am told that that has been read

                                      [Page 193]

COLONEL STOREY: I had it checked, and we did not find that it had,
your Honour. I will pass on them.

Now, if your Honour pleases, we will pass to
Document 2273-PS next. I offer in evidence now
just portions of Document 2273-PS, which is
Exhibit USA 487. This document was captured by
the U.S.S.R. and will be offered in detail by
our Soviet colleagues later. But with their
consent, I want to introduce in evidence a chart
which is identified by that document, and we
have an enlargement which we would like to put
on the board, and we will pass to the Tribunal
photostatic copies.

If your Honour pleases, this chart is identified
by the photostatic copy attached to the original
report which will be dealt with in detail later.
I want to quote just one statement from Page 2
of the English translation of that document. It
is the third paragraph from the bottom on Page 2
of the English translation:

     "The Esthonian self-protection movement
     formed as the Germans advanced and began to
     arrest Jews, but there were no spontaneous
     pogroms. Only by the Security Police and
     the S.D. were the Jews gradually executed
     as they became no longer required for work.
     Today there are no longer any Jews in

That document is a top secret document by
Einsatz Group A, which was a speciai projects
group. This chart, of which the photostatic copy
is attached to the original in the German
translation on the wall, shows the progress of
the extermination of the Jews in the area in
which this Einsatz Kormnando Group operated.

If your Honour will refer to the top, next to
St. Petersburg, or Leningrad as we know it, you
will see down below the picture of a coffin, and
that is described in the report as 3,600 having
been killed.

Next over, at the left, is another coffin in one
of the small Baltic States, showing that 963 in
that area have been put in the coffin.

Then next, down near Riga, you will note that
35,238 were put away in the coffins, and it
refers to the ghetto there as still having

You come down to the next square or the next
State showing 136,421 were put in their coffins,
and then in the next area near Minsk, and just
above it there were 41,828 put in their coffins.

THE PRESIDENT: Are you sure that they were
executed, the 136,000, because there is no
coffin there.

COLONEL STOREY: Here are the totals from the

THE PRESIDENT: These photostatic copies are
different from what you have there. In the area
which is marked 136,421 there is no coffin.

COLONEL STOREY: Well, I am sorry. The one that I
have is a true and correct copy.

THE PRESIDENT: Mine has not got it and Mr.
Biddle's has not got it.

COLONEL STOREY: Will you hand this to the
President, please ?

THE PRESIDENT: 1 suppose the document itself
will show it.

COLONEL STOREY: I will turn to the original and
verify it. Apparently there is a typographical
error. If your Honour pleases, here it is,
136,421, with the coffin.

THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Parker points out it is in
the document itself too.

COLONEL STOREY: Yes, sir, it is in the document
itself. There is an error on that.

                                      [Page 194]
The 128,000 at the bottom shows that at that
time there were 128,000 on hand; and the literal
translation of the statement, as I understand,
means "Still on hand in the Minsk area."

I next refer to Document 1104-PS, Volume 2,
Exhibit USA 483, which I now offer in evidence.

THE PRESIDENT: Colonel Storey, did you tell us
what the document was ? There is nothing on the
translation to show what the document is.

COLONEL STOREY: If your Honour pleases, it is a
report of the special purpose Group A, or the
Einsatz Group A, a top secret report, in other
words, making a record of their activities in
these areas, and this chart was attached showing
the areas covered.

THE PRESIDENT: Special group of the Gestapo?

COLONEL STOREY: The special group that was
organised of the Gestapo and the S.D. in that
area. In other words, a Commando Group.

As I mentioned, your Honour, they organised
these special commando groups to work with and
behind the armies as they consolidated their
gains in occupied territories, and your Honour
will hear from other reports of these "Einsatz "
groups as we go along in this presentation. In
other words, "Einsatz " means special action or
action groups, and they were organised to cover
certain geographical areas behind the immediate
front lines.

THE PRESIDENT: Yes, but they were groups, were
they, of the Gestapo ?

COLONEL STOREY: The Gestapo and the S.D.

THE PRESIDENT: Well, that is part of the

COLONEL STOREY: There were some of the Kripo in
it, too.

Now, the next document is 1104-PS, dated 30th
October, 1941. This document shows on that date
the Commissioner of the territory of Sluzk wrote
a report to the Commissioner of Minsk, in which
he severely criticised the actions of the
Einsatz Commandos of the Sipo and the S.D.
operating in his area for the murder of the
Jewish population of that area, and I quote the
English translation, on Page 4 of that document
beginning at the first paragraph:

     "On 27th October in the morning, at about 8
     o'clock a first lieutenant of the Police
     Battalion No. 11, from Kauen (Lithuania)
     appeared and introduced himself as the
     adjutant of the Battalion Commander of the
     Security Police. The first lieutenant
     explained that the Police Battalion had
     received the assignment to effect the
     liquidation of all Jews here in the town of
     Sluzk within two days. The Battalion
     Commander, with his battalion in strength
     of four companies, two of which were made
     up of Lithuanian partisans, was on the
     march here and the action would have to
     begin instantly. I replied to the first
     lieutenant that 1 had to discuss the action
     in any case first with the Commander. About
     half an hour later the Police Battalion
     arrived in Sluzk. Immediately after the
     arrival, a conference with the Battalion
     Commander took place according to my
     request. I first explained to the Commander
     that it would not very well be possible to
     effect the action without previous
     preparation, because everybody had been
     sent to work and it would lead to a
     terrible confusion. At least it would have
     been his duty to inform me a day ahead of
     time. Then I requested him to postpone the
     action one day. However, he rejected this
     with the remark that he had to carry out
     this action everywhere and in all

                                      [Page 195]

     two days, the town of Sluzk had to be
     cleared of Jews by all means."

That report was made to the Reich Commissioner
for the Eastern Territories through Gauleiter
Heinrich Lusch at Riga. Your Honour will recall
that he was referred to in another presentation.

Now, skipping over to Page 5. The first
paragraph, I would like to quote it:

     "For the rest, as regards the execution of
     the action, I must point out to my deepest
     regret that the matter bordered on sadism.
     The town itself offered a picture of horror
     during the action. With indescribable
     brutality on the part of both the German
     Police officers, and particularly the
     Lithuanian partisans, not only the Jewish
     people, but also White Ruthenians, were
     taken out of their dwellings and herded
     together. Everywhere in the town shots were
     to be heard, and in different streets the
     corpses of shot Jews accumulated. The White
     Ruthenians were in the greatest distress to
     free themselves from the encirclement.
     Regardless of the fact that the Jewish
     people, among whom were also tradesmen were
     mistreated in a terribly barbarous way, in
     front of the White Ruthenian people, the
     White Ruthenians themselves were also
     worked over with rubber clubs and rifle
     butts. There was no question of an action
     against the Jews any more. It rather looked
     like a revolution."

And then I skip down to the next to the last
paragraph on that same page; quoting:

     "In conclusion, I find myself obliged to
     point out that the Police Battalion has
     looted in an unheard of manner during the
     action, and that not only in Jewish houses
     but just the same in those of the White
     Ruthenians, anything of use such as boots,
     leather, cloth, gold and other valuables,
     has been taken away. On the basis of
     statements of members of the Armed Forces,
     watches were torn off the arms of Jews in
     public, on the street, and rings were
     pulled off the fingers in the most brutal
     manner. A major of the Finance Department
     reported that a Jewish girl was asked by
     the police to obtain immediately 5,000
     roubles to have her father released. This
     girl is said to have actually gone
     everywhere in order to obtain the money."

There is another paragraph with reference to the
number of copies -- on the third page of the
translation -- to which I would like to call
your Honour's attention. The last paragraph on
Page 3 of the translation, quoting:

     "I am submitting this report in duplicate
     so that one copy may be forwarded to the
     Reich Minister. Peace and order cannot be
     maintained in White Ruthenia with methods
     of that sort. To bury seriously wounded
     people alive who worked their way out of
     their graves again, is such a base and
     filthy act that the incident as such,
     should be reported to the Fuehrer and Reich
     The civil administration of White Ruthenia
     makes very strenuous efforts to win the
     population over to Germany, in accordance
     with the instructions of the Fuehrer. These
     efforts cannot be brought in harmony with
     the methods described herein."

Signed by the Commissioner General for White

And then on 11th November, 1941, he forwarded it
on to the Reich Minister for Occupied Countries,
in Berlin.

THE PRESIDENT: Who was that at that time?

                                      [Page 196]

COLONEL STOREY: The Reich Commissionere (I
believe it was shown for the Easter occupied
country) was the defendent Rosenberg. I think
that is correct. On the same date by separate
letter the Commissioner General of White
Ruthenia reported to the Reich Commissioner for
the Eastern Territories that he had received
money, valuables, and other objects taken by the
police in the action at Sluzk, and other
regions, all of which had been deposited with
the Reich Credit Institute, for the disposal of
the Reich Commissioner.

On 21st November, 1941, a report on the Sluzk
incident was sent to the personal reviewer of
the permanent deputy of the Minister of the
Reich with a copy to Heydrich, who was the Chief
of the Security Police and the S.D. That is
shown on the first page of Document 1104.

The activities of the Einsatz Groups continued
throughout 1943 and 1944 under Kaltenbrunner as
Chief of the Security Police and S.D. Under
adverse war conditions, however, the programme
of extermination was to a large extent changed
to one of rounding up slave labour for Germany.

I next refer to Document 3012-PS, which has
heretofore been introduced as Exhibit USA igo.
This is a letter from the headquarters of one of
the Commando Groups, a section known as Einsatz
Group C, dated 19th March, 1943. This letter
summarises the real activities and methods of
the Gestapo and S.D., and I should like to refer
to additional portions of the letter, to those
previously quoted on Page 2, of Document 30I2-
PS, and I think I will read the first page
beginning with the first paragraph:

     "It is the task of the Security Police and
     of the Security Service (S.D.) to discover
     all enemies of the Reich, and to fight them
     in the interest of security and, in the
     zone of operations, especially to guarantee
     the security of the Army. Besides the
     annihilation of active opponents all other
     elements who by virtue of their convictions
     or their past may prove to be active
     enemies, favourable circumstances provided,
     are to be eliminated through preventive
     measures. The Security Police carries out
     this task according to the general
     directives of the Fuehrer, with all of the
     required toughness. Energetic measures are
     especially necessary in territories
     endangered by the activity of hostile
     The competence of the Security Police
     within the zone of operations is based on
     the 'Barbarossa ' decrees."

The Tribunal will recall the famous "Barbarossa
" code, namely, the decrees that were issued in
connection with the invasion of Russia:

     "I deem the measures of the Security Police
     carried out on a considerable scale during
     recent times necessary for the two
     following reasons:
     1. The situation at the front in my sector
     had become so serious, with the population
     partly influenced by Hungarians and
     Italians who streamed back in chaotic
     condition and took, openly, positions
     against us.
     2. The strong expeditions by hostile gangs
     who came especially from the Forest of
     Bryansk were another reason. Besides that,
     other partisan groups formed by the
     population appeared suddenly in all
     districts. The providing of arms was
     evidently no difficulty at all. It would
     have been irresponsible if we had observed
     this whole activity without acting against
     it. It is obvious that all such measures
     necessitate some harshness."

                                      [Page 197]

I want to take up the significant point of the
harsh measures.

1. Shooting of Hungarian Jews
2. Shooting of Agronoms.
3. Shooting of children.
4. Total burning down of villages.
5. "Shooting " -- I quote --"while trying to
escape ", of Security Service (S.D.) prisoners.

     "Chief of Einsatz group C confirmed once
     more the correctness of the measures taken,
     and expressed his recognition of the
     energetic action. With regard to the
     current political situation, especially in
     the armament industry in the Fatherland,
     the measures of the Security Police have to
     be subordinated to the greatest extent to
     the recruiting of labour for Germany. In
     the shortest possible time the Ukraine has
     to put at the disposal of the armament
     industry 1,000,000 workers, Some of whom
     have to be sent from the territory daily."

Your Honour, please, I believe the numbers have
been quoted before by Mr. Dodd. I refer on the
next page, to the first order in sub-paragraphs
1 and 2:

     "1. Special treatment is to be limited to
     the minimum.
     2. Communist functionaries, agitators, and
     so on, will only be listed for the time
     being, without being arrested. It is, for
     instance, no longer feasible to arrest all
     the close relatives of a member of the
     Communist Party. Also members of the
     Konisomolz are to be arrested only if they
     occupied leading positions."

The next paragraphs have been read into
evidence, 3 and 4, in a previous presentation. I
will read:

     "No. 5. The reporting of hostile gangs, as
     well as drives against them, is not
     affected hereby. All drives against those
     hostile gangs can take place only after my
     approval has been obtained. The prisons
     have to be kept empty as a rule, and we
     have to be aware of the fact that the Slavs
     will interpret the soft treatment on our
     part as weakness, and that they will act
     accordingly right away. If we limit our
     harsh measures of the Security Police
     through the above orders for the time
     being, that is only done for the reason
     that the most important thing is the
     recruiting of workers. No check of persons
     to be sent into the Reich will be made. No
     written certificates of political
     reliability check, or similar things, will
     be issued. Signed by Christensen, S.S.
     Sturmbannfuehrer and commanding officer."

I understood that your Honour wanted to adjourn
at four o'clock, and I believe that I can
introduce one more statement. It was the Einsatz
Groups of the Security Police and S.D. that
operated the infamous death vans. Document
501-PS, which was received as Exhibit USA 288,
has previously referred to this operation. The
letter from Becker, which is a part of this
exhibit, was addressed to Obersturmbannfuehrer
Rauff at Berlin. We now refer to Document L-185.
I simply refer to Document 501-PS as a reference
to the death vans. The Document L-185, Exhibit
USA 484, is the one I am now offering in
evidence, Page 7 of the English translation, L-
185. It will be observed that the Chief of Amt.
II D of the R.S.H.A. in charge of technical
matters was Obersturmbahnfuehrer Rauff. Mr.
Harris advises me that the only point to be
proved by that is that Amt. II of the

                                      [Page 198]

R.S.H.A., who made this report on technical
matters, was the Obersturmbahnfuehrer Rauff, and
then he refers in the same connection to
Document 2348-PS, which is Exhibit USA 485. The
previous one was to identify Rauff, and then to
offer his affidavit, which is Document 2348-PS,
second volume. Reading from the beginning of the
affidavit, which was made on 19th October, 1945,
in Ancona, Italy,

     "I hereby acknowledge the attached letter
     written by Dr. Becker on 16th May, 1942,
     and received by me on 29th May, 1942, as a
     genuine letter. I did, on 18th October,
     1945, write on the side of this letter a
     statement to the effect that it was
     genuine. I do not know the number of death
     vans being operated, and cannot give an
     approximate figure. The vans were built by
     the Saurer Works, Germany, located, I
     believe, in Berlin. Some other firms built
     these vans also. In so far as I am aware
     these vans operated only in Russia. In so
     far as I can state these vans were probably
     operating in 1941, and I personally believe
     that they were operating up to the
     termination of the war."

If your Honour pleases, I do not think that we
will have time to go into the next exhibit.

THE PRESIDENT: Very well. Then the Tribunal will
now adjourn until Wednesday, 2nd January.

                (The Tribunal adjourned to 2nd January, 1946, at
                                  1000 hours.)

Home ·  Site Map ·  What's New? ·  Search Nizkor

© The Nizkor Project, 1991-2012

This site is intended for educational purposes to teach about the Holocaust and to combat hatred. Any statements or excerpts found on this site are for educational purposes only.

As part of these educational purposes, Nizkor may include on this website materials, such as excerpts from the writings of racists and antisemites. Far from approving these writings, Nizkor condemns them and provides them so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and antisemitic discourse. Nizkor urges the readers of these pages to condemn racist and hate speech in all of its forms and manifestations.