The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

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Last-Modified: 1999/09/18

First, I offer in evidence Document 686-PS. This is Exhibit
USA 305. This is a copy of a secret decree signed by Hitler
and defendants Goering and Keitel, dated 7th October, 1939,
entrusting Himmler with the task of executing the
conspirators' Germanisation programme. This particular
document came from the Ministerial Collection Centre of
Kassel, Germany. I quote from Page 1, Lines 9 to 21 of the
English text. In the German text this extract appears at
Page 1, Lines 13 to 25. Page 1, Lines 13 to 25. I quote:-

   "The Reichsfuehrer S.S." - that was Himmler - "has the
   obligation in accordance with my directives:
   
      1.To bring back for final return into the Reich all
      German nationals and racial Germans in the foreign
      countries.
      
      2.To eliminate the harmful influence of such alien
      groups of the population as represent a danger to the
      Reich and the German folk community.
      
      3.   To form new German settlements by resettling
      and, in particular, by settling returning German
      citizens and racial Germans from abroad.
   
   The Reichsfuehrer S.S. is authorised to take all
   necessary general and administrative measures for the
   execution of this obligation."

Himmler's conception of his task under this decree is
plainly stated in the foreword which he wrote for the
Deutsche Arbeit issue of June/July, 1942. The foreword is
contained in Document 2915-PS, now Exhibit USA 306. I quote
from the first four lines of the English text. The German
text appears at Page 157:-

   "It is not our task," Himmler wrote, "to Germanise the
   East in the old sense, that is, to teach the people
   there the German language and German law, but to see to
   it that only people of purely German, Germanic blood
   live in the East.
   
   Signed, Himmler."

I next offer in evidence Document 2916-PS, which is Exhibit
USA 307. This document contains various materials taken out
of Der Menscheneinatz 1940, a confidential publication
issued by Himmler's Office for the Consolidation of German
Nationhood. I quote initially from Lines 7 to 11 of Page 1.
In the German text these extracts appear at Page 51, first
four lines under the letter "D". I quote:-

   "The removal of foreign races from the incorporated
   Eastern territories is one of the most essential goals
   to be reached in the German East. This is the chief
   national political task, which has to be executed in the
   incorporated Eastern territories by the 'Reichsfuehrer'
   S.S., Reich Commissioner, for the strengthening of the
   national character of the German people."

I next quote from Lines 33 to 39 of Page 1 of the English
text. In the German text, these extracts appear on Page 52,
Lines 14 to 20. I quote:-

   " ... there are the following two primary reasons which
   make the regaining of lost German blood an urgent
   necessity:
   
   1.Prevention of a further increase of the Polish
   intelligentsia through families of German descent, even
   if they are Polonised.
   
                                                  [Page 429]
   
   2.Increase of the population by racial elements
   desirable for the German nation, and the acquisition of
   ethno-biologically un-objectionable forces for the
   German reconstruction of agriculture and industry."

Further light is thrown upon the goals which the
conspirators had set for their Germanisation programme in
conquered Eastern areas by a speech delivered by Himmler on
14th October, 1943. This speech was published by the
National Socialist Leadership Staff of the O.K.W. The
document came to us through the Document Section, 3rd U.S.
Infantry Division. Excerpts from this speech are set forth
in L-70, which is Exhibit USA 308. I quote all of the
English text, and in the German text these excerpts appear
at Page 23, Lines 6 to 11, 12 to 15, 20 to 23, and Page 30,
Lines 7 to 16. Himmler said, and I quote:-

   "I consider that in dealing with members of a foreign
   country, especially of some Slav nationality, we must
   not start from German points of view, we must not endow
   these people with decent German thoughts and logical
   conclusions of which they are not capable, but we must
   take them as they really are .
   
   Obviously in such a mixture of peoples there will always
   be some racially good types. Therefore I think that it
   is our duty to take their children with us, to remove
   them from their environment, if necessary, by abducting
   them. Either we win over any good blood that we can use
   for ourselves and give it a place in our people, or we
   destroy that blood."

Continuing the German text on Page 30, Lines 7 to 16 Himmler
stated. I quote:-

   "For us the end of this war will mean an open road to
   the East, the creation of the Germanic Reich in this way
   or that . . . the bringing home of 30,000,000 human
   beings of our blood, so that during our lifetime we
   shall be a people of 120,000,000 Germanic souls. That
   means that we shall be the sole decisive power in
   Europe. That means that we shall then be able to tackle
   the peace, during which we shall be willing for the
   first 2o years to rebuild and spread out our villages
   and towns, and that we shall push the borders of our
   German race 500 kilometres further to the East."

In furtherance of the unlawful plans disclosed by the last
four exhibits, which have been offered in evidence, the
conspirators contrived a Racial Register in the incorporated
area of Poland. The Racial Register was, in effect, an
elaborate classification of persons deemed to be of German
blood, and contained provisions setting forth some of the
rights, privileges and duties of the persons in each
classification. Persons were classified into four groups:-

1. Germans who had actively promoted the Nazi cause.

2.Germans who had been more or less passive in the Nazi
struggle, but had retained their German nationality.

3.Persons of German extraction who, although previously
connected with the Polish nation, were willing to submit to
Germanisation.

4.Persons of German descent, who had been "politically
absorbed by the Polish nation", and who would be resistant
to Germanisation.

The Racial Register was inaugurated under a decree of 12th
September, 1940, issued by Himmler as Reich Commissioner for
the Consolidation of

                                                  [Page 430]


German Nationhood, and it is contained in Document 2916-PS,
previously introduced in evidence. It is Exhibit USA 307,
that is Document 2916-PS. I quote from Page 4 of the English
text, Lines 14 to 16. In the German text, these extracts
appear at Page 92, Lines 29 to the end of the page, and
Lines i to 9 of Page 93. I quote:-

   "The list of ethnic Germans will be divided into four
   parts (limited to inter-office
   use).
   
   1.Ethnic Germans who fought actively in the ethnic
   struggle. Besides membership in a German Organisation,
   every other activity favouring the German against a
   foreign nationality will be considered an active
   manifestation.
   
   2.Ethnic Germans who did not actively intervene in
   favour of the German nationality but had proof of their
   German nationality.
   
   3.Persons of German descent who became connected with
   the Polish nation in the course of the years but have,
   on account of their attitude, the prerequisites to
   become full-fledged members of the German national
   community. To this group belong also persons of non-
   German descent who live in mixed marriage with an ethnic
   German in which the German spouse has the prevailing
   influence. Persons of Masurian, Slonzak, or Upper
   Silesian descent, who are to be recognised as ethnic
   Germans usually belong to this group 3.
   
   4.Persons of German descent, politically absorbed by the
   Polish nation (renegades).
   
   Persons not included on the list of ethnic Germans are
   Poles or foreign nationals.
   
   Their treatment is regulated by B II.
   
   Members of groups 3 and 4 have to be educated as full
   Germans, that is, have to be re-Germanised in the course
   of time through an intensive educational training in old
   Germany.
   
   The establishment of members of group 4 has to be based
   on the doctrine that German blood must not be utilised
   in the interest of a foreign nation. Against those who
   refuse re-Germanisation, Security Police measures are to
   be taken."

The basic idea of creating a Racial Register for persons of
German extraction was later incorporated in a decree Of 3rd
March, 1941, signed by Himmler and the defendants Frick and
Hess. This decree is dated 4th March, 1941, and is set forth
in the Reichsgesetzblatt, 1941, Part 1, Page 118. We ask the
Tribunal to take judicial notice thereof.

The entire apparatus of the S.S. was thrown behind the
vigorous execution of these decrees. Proof of this fact is
contained in Document R-112, which is Exhibit USA 309, and I
now offer it in evidence. This exhibit contains directives
issued by Himmler as the Reich Commissioner for the
Consolidation of German Nationhood. I quote first from the
last two paragraphs of the English text of the directives,
16th February, 1942, which is on Page 3 of this exhibit. In
the German text this provision appears on Page 1 of the
first decree, dated 16th February, 1942, Paragraphs 1 and 2.
The directive provided, and I now quote:-

   "1. Where racial Germans have not applied for entry in
   the German Ethnical List you will instruct the
   subordinate agencies to turn over their names to the
   State Police (Superior) Office. Subsequently, you will
   report to me.
   
                                                  [Page 431]
   
   
   II. The Local State Police (Superior) Office will charge
   the persons whose names are turned over to them to prove
   within eight days that they have applied for entry in
   the German Ethnical List.
   
   If such proof is not submitted, the person in question
   is to be taken into protective custody for transfer to a
   concentration camp."

The measures taken against persons in the fourth category -
"Polonised Germans" as the conspirators called them - were
particularly harsh. These persons were resistant to
Germanisation, and ruthless measures calculated to break
their resistance were prescribed. Where the individual's
past history indicated that he could not be effectively
Germanised, he was thrown into a concentration camp.

Some of these measures are set forth in Sub-paragraph A of
Paragraph II on Page 5 of Document R-112, and I quote in
full from the English text of that particular paragraph.
This passage is set forth in the German text at Pages 2 and
3 of the second decree dated 16th February, 1942, under II.
This is what the directive provides:-

   "II. The re-Germanisation of the Polonised Germans
   presupposes their complete separation from Polish
   surroundings. For that reason the persons entered in
   Division 4 of the German Ethnical List are to be dealt
   with in the following manner:
   
   A. They are to be resettled in Old Reich territory.
   
       1. The Superior S.S. and Police Leaders are charged
       with evacuating and resettling them according to
       instructions which will follow later.
       
       2. Asocial persons and others who are of inferior
       hereditary quality will not be included in the
       resettlement. Their names will be turned over at
       once by the Higher S.S. and Police Fuehrer
       (Inspectors of Security Police and Security Service)
       to the competent State Police (Superior) Office. The
       latter will arrange for their transfer to a
       concentration camp.
       
       3.Persons with a particularly bad political record
       will not be included in resettlement action. Their
       names will also be given by the Higher S.S. and
       Police Fuehrer (Inspectors of Security Police and
       Security Service) to the competent State Police
       (Superior) Office for transfer to a concentration
       camp.
       
       The wives and children of such persons are to be
       resettled in old Reich territory and to be included
       in the Germanisation measures. Where the wife also
       has a particularly bad political record and cannot
       be included in the resettlement action, her name,
       too, is to be turned over to the competent State
       Police (Superior) Office with a view to imprisoning
       her in a concentration camp. In such cases the
       children are to be separated from their parents and
       dealt with according to III, Paragraph 2 of this
       decree.
       
       Persons are to be considered as having a
       particularly bad political record who have offended
       the German nation to a very great degree - e.g., who
       participated in persecutions of Germans or boycotts
       of Germans, etc."

Coincident with the programme of Germanising persons of
German extraction in the incorporated areas, the
conspirators, as previously indicated, undertook to settle
large numbers of Germans of proved Nazi convictions in

                                                  [Page 432]

that area. This aspect of their programme is clearly shown
by an article by S.S. Obergruppenfuehrer and General of the
Police Wilhelm Koppe, who was one of Himmler's trusted
agents.

Excerpts from this article are contained in Document 2915-
PS, which was earlier introduced as Exhibit USA 306. I quote
from the second paragraph of the English text of this
exhibit. The German text appears at the third line from the
bottom of Page 170 and continues to the first full paragraph
of Page 171. I now quote Koppe's statement:-

    "The victory of German weapons in the East must,
    therefore, be followed by the victory of the German
    race over the Polish race, if the regained Eastern
    sphere - according to the Fuehrer's will - shall
    henceforth remain for all time an essential constituent
    part of the Greater German Reich. It is therefore of
    decisive importance to infiltrate German farmers,
    labourers, civil servants, merchants, and artisans into
    the regained German region so that a living and deep-
    rooted bastion of German people can be formed as a
    protective wall against foreign penetration, and
    possibly as a starting point for the racial infusion of
    the territories farther East."

THE PRESIDENT: We will adjourn now for 10 minutes.

CAPTAIN HARRIS: Yes, sir.

(A recess was taken.)

CAPTAIN HARRIS: Up to this point we have been speaking of
the Germanisation
measures in the incorporated areas. I should like now
briefly to turn to the
Germanisation programme in the Government General.

In the Government General there were relatively few persons
at the outset who qualified as Germans according to the
conspirators' standards. Hence little would be served by the
introduction of a Racial Register categorising persons of
German extraction on the model of the one instituted in the
incorporated area, and, to our knowledge, no such Racial
Register was prescribed in the Government General. Rather,
the plan seems to have been (a) to make the Government
General a colony of Germany, which - as your Honours will
recall from Document EC-344-16 which has been introduced as
Exhibit USA 297 - was the objective expressed by the
defendant Frank, and (b) to create so-called "German Island
Settlements" in the productive farming areas. These Island
Settlements were to be created by an influx of German
persons who faithfully adhered to the principles of National
Socialism.


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