The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Shofar FTP Archive File: imt/tgmwc/tgmwc-01/tgmwc-01-06.03

Archive/File: imt/tgmwc/tgmwc-01/tgmwc-01-06.03
Last-Modified: 1999/09/04

                                                  [Page 181]

I refer to Hitler's speech to the Reichstag on 21st May,
1935, our document 2288-PS. We have here the original volume
of the "Volkische Beobachter " (the "Popular Observer," I
suppose, is the correct translation), Volume 48, 1935, 122-
151, May, and the date 22nd May, 1935, which gave his
speech, under the heading (if I may translate, perhaps) "The
Fuehrer notifies the world of the way to real peace."

I offer that part of that volume, identified as document
2288-PS, as exhibit USA 38, and from that I shall read,
beginning with the fifth paragraph in the English

"The Treaty of Versailles was not broken." I am starting
with the words, "The Treaty of Versailles," in the fifth

   "The Treaty of Versailles was not broken by Germany
   unilaterally, but the well-known paragraphs of the
   Dictat of Versailles were violated, and consequently
   invalidated, by those powers who could not make up their
   minds to follow the disarmament requested of Germany
   with their own disarmament as agreed upon by the

                                                  [Page 190]

I am sorry, I said the fifth paragraph...this is on page 3.
It is after he discusses some general conclusions and then
there is a paragraph numbered 1, that says:-

"The German Reich Government refuses to adhere to the Geneva
Resolution of 17th March...."

The Treaty of Versailles was not broken by Germany
unilaterally, but the well-known paragraphs of the Dictat of
Versailles were violated and consequently invalidated by
those powers.."

I am sorry. May I look at the German original? If the Court
please, I did not want to read the whole volume of the
"Volkische Beobachter"..

THE PRESIDENT: If it is only a short document you are going
to read, only a short extract, perhaps the document could be
taken away from the interpreter, and he could follow you.

MR. ALDERMAN: I think I could find it.. I am not very fast
in reading German but . . .
THE PRESIDENT: If you read it in English, he will translate

MR. ALDERMAN: Yes, but I want the interpreter to have the

You will find "1. The German Reich Government refuses to
adhere to the Geneva Resolution of 17th March....

   "The Treaty of Versailles was not broken by Germany
   unilaterally, but the well-known paragraphs of the
   Dictat of Versailles were violated, and consequently
   invalidated, by those powers who could not make up their
   minds to follow the disarmament requested of Germany
   with their own Disarmament as agreed upon by the Treaty.
   2. Because the other powers did not live up to their
   obligations under the disarmament programme, the
   Government of the German Reich no longer considers
   itself bound to those articles, which are nothing but a
   discrimination of the German nation" - (I suppose
   "against the German nation") - "for an unlimited period
   of time, since, through them, Germany is being nailed
   down in a unilateral manner, contrary to the spirit of
   the agreement."
If the Tribunal please, needless to say, when I cite Adolf
Hitler, I don't necessarily vouch for the absolute truth of
everything that he presents. This is a public speech he made
before the world, and it is for the Tribunal to judge
 whether he is presenting a pretext or whether he is
presenting the truth.

In conjunction with other phases of planning and preparation
for aggressive war, there were various programmes for direct
and indirect training of a military nature. This included
not only the training of military personnel, but also the
establishment and training of other military organisations,
such as the Police Force, which could be and were absorbed
by the Army.

These are shown in other parts of the case presented by the
prosecution. However, the extent of this programme for
military training is indicated by Hitler's boast of the
expenditure of ninety billion Reichsmarks during the period
1933 to 1939, in the building up of the Armed Forces.

I have another volume of the  "Volkische Beobachter, "Volume
52, 1939, I think the issue Of 2nd and 3rd September, 1939,
which I offer in evidence as exhibit USA 39; and there
appears a speech by Adolf Hitler, with his picture, under
the heading which, if I may be permitted to try to
translate, reads: "The Fuehrer announces the Battle for the
justice and Security of the Reich." I hand the original
volume ...

This is a speech, if the Court please, by Adolf Hitler, on
1st September, 1939, the date of the attack on Poland,
identified by our number 2322-PS ; and I read from that the
paragraphs indicated to the interpreter

"For more than six years now .."

I beg your pardon. On the Court's mimeographed copy it is
the bottom of page 3, the last paragraph starting on the

                                                  [Page 191]

   "For more than six years now, I have been engaged in
   building up the German Armed Forces. During this period
   more than ninety billion Reichsmarks were spent in
   building up the Wehrmacht. To-day, ours are the best-
   equipped armed forces in the world, and they are
   superior to those of 1914. My confidence in them can
   never be shaken."

The secret nature of this training programme and the fact of
its early development is illustrated by a reference to the
secret training of flying personnel, as far back as 1932, as
well as the early plans to build a military air force. A
report was sent to the defendant Hess, in a letter from one
Schickebaum to the defendant Rosenberg, for delivery to

I suppose that Schickebaum was very anxious that no one but
Hess should get this letter, and therefore sent it to
Rosenberg for personal delivery to Hess.

This document points out that the civilian pilots should be
so organised as to enable their transfer into the military
air force Organisation.

This letter is our document 1143-PS, dated 20th October,
1932, and I now offer it in evidence as exhibit USA 40. It
starts:  "Lieber Alfred" (referring to Alfred Rosenberg) and
is signed  "Mit bestem Gruss, Dein Amo." Amo, I think, was
the first name of Schickebaum.

   "Dear Alfred: I am sending you enclosed a communication
   from the R.W.M. forwarded to me by our confidential man
   (Vertrauensmann), which indeed is very interesting. I
   believe we will have to take some steps so that the
   matter will not be procured secretly for the Stahlhelm.
   This report is not known to anybody else. I
   intentionally did not inform even our long friend"

- I suppose that means "our tall friend." I may interpolate
that the defendant Rosenberg, in an interrogation on 5th
October, 194S, identified this "long friend" or "tall
friend," as being one Von Albensleben.

   I am enclosing an additional copy for Hess, and ask you
   to transmit the letter to Hess by messenger, I do not
   want to write a letter to Hess for fear that it might be
   read somewhere. Mit bestem Gruss, Dein Amo."

Then enclosed in that is "Air Force Organisation."

   Purpose: Preparation of material and training of
   personnel to provide for the case of the armament of the
   Entire management as a civilian organisation will be
   transferred to Col. von Willberg, at present Commander
   of Breslau, who, retaining his position in the
   Reichswehr, is going on leave of absence.
   (a) Organising the pilots of civilian air-lines in such
   a way as to enable their transfer to the air force
   (b) Prospects to train crews for military flying.
   Training to be done within the organisation for military
   flying of the Stahlhelm....

I believe that means the  "steel helmet."

   "... which is being turned over to Col. Hanel, retired.
   All existing organisations for sport-flying are to be
   used for military flying. Directions on kinds and tasks
   of military flying will be issued by this Stahlhelm
   directorate. The Stahlhelm Organisation will pay the
   military Pilots 50 marks per hour flight. These are due
   to the owner of the plane if he himself carries out the
   flight. They are to be divided in case of non-owners of
   the plane, between flight organisation, proprietor and
   crew in the proportion of 10: 20: 20. Military flying is
   now paid better than flying for advertisement (40). We
   therefore have to expect that most proprietors of planes
   or flying associations will go over to the Stahlhelm
   organisation. It must be achieved that equal conditions
   will be granted by the R.W.M., also the N.S.D.A.P.

The programme of rearmament and the objectives of
circumventing and breaching the Versailles Treaty are
forcefully shown by a number of Navy documents, showing the
participation and co-operation of the German Navy in this
rearmament programme, secret at first.

                                                  [Page 192]

When they deemed it safe to say so, they openly acknowledged
that it had always been their objective to break Versailles.

In 1937 the Navy High Command published a secret book
entitled  "The Fight of the Navy Against Versailles, 1919 to
1935." The preface refers to the fight of the Navy against
the unbearable regulations of the peace treaty of
Versailles. The table of contents includes a variety of Navy
activities, such as saving of coastal guns from destruction
as required by Versailles; independent armament measures
behind the back of the government and behind the back of the
legislative bodies resurrection of the U-boat arm; economic
rearmament and camouflage rearmament from 1933 to the
freedom from the restrictions in 1935.

This document points out the significant effect of seizure
of power by the Nazis in 1933 on increasing the size and
determining the nature of the rearmament programme. It also
refers to the far-reaching independence in the building and
development of the Navy, which was only hampered in so far
as concealment of rearmament had to be considered in
compliance with the Versailles Treaty.

With the restoration of what was called the military
sovereignty of the Reich in 1935 - the reoccupation of the
demilitarised zone of the Rhineland - the external
camouflage of rearmament was eliminated.

We have, if the Court please, a photostat of the German
printed book to which I have referred entitled "Der Kampf
der Marine gegen Versailles (The Fight of the Navy against
Versailles), 1919 to 1935," written by Sea Captain
Schuessler. It has the symbol of the Nazi Party with the
Swastika in the spread eagle on the cover sheet, and it is
headed  "Secret", underscored. It is our document C-156. It
is a book of seventy-six pages of text followed by index
lists and charts. I offer it in evidence as exhibit USA 41.
I may say that the defendant Raeder identified this book in
a recent interrogation and explained that the Navy tried to
fulfil the letter of the Versailles Treaty and at the same
time to make progress in naval development. I should like to
read from this book, if the Court please. I certainly shall
not read the entire book, but I should like to read the
preface and one or two other portions of it.

   "The object and aim of this memorandum under the heading
   'Preface,' is to draw a technically reliable picture
   based on documentary records and the evidence of those
   who took part in the fight of the Navy against the
   unbearable regulations of the peace Treaty of
   Versailles. It shows that the Reich Navy, after the
   liberating activities of the Free Corps and of Scapa
   Flow, did not rest, but found ways and means to lay with
   unquenchable enthusiasm, in addition to the building up
   of the 15,000 man Navy, the basis for a greater
   development in the future, and so create, by the work of
   soldiers and technicians, the primary condition for a
   later rearmament. It must also distinguish more clearly
   the services of these men, who without being widely
   known, applied themselves with extraordinary zeal and
   responsibility to the service of the fight against the
   peace Treaty. Stimulated by the highest feeling of duty,
   they risked, particularly in the early days of their
   fight, themselves and their positions unrestrainedly in
   the partially self-ordained tasks. This compilation
   makes it clearer, however, that even such ideal and
   ambitious plans can be realised only to a small degree
   if the concentrated and united strength of the whole
   people is not behind the courageous activity of the
   soldier. Only when the Fuehrer had created the second
   and even more important condition for an effective
   rearmament in the co-ordination of the whole nation and
   in the fusion of the political, financial and spiritual
   power, could the work of the soldier find its
   fulfilment. The framework of this peace Treaty, the most
   shameful known in world history, collapsed under the
   driving power of this united will.
   Signed, the Compiler."

Now, I wish to invite the Court's attention merely to the
summary of contents, because the chapter titles are
sufficiently significant for my present purpose.

   I. First: "Defensive action against the execution of the
   Treaty of Versailles (from the end of the war to the
   occupation of the Ruhr, 1923)."
                                                  [Page 193]
   Second: "Saving of coastal guns from destruction to
   removal of artillery equipment and ammunition, hand and
   machine weapons."
   Third: "Limitation of destruction in Heligoland."
   II. Independent armament measures behind the back of the
   Reich Government and of the legislative body (from 1923
   to the Lohmann case in 1927).
       1. Attempt to increase the personnel strength of the
       Reich Navy.
       2. Contribution to the strengthening of patriotism
       among the people.
       3. Activities of Captain Lohmann.

I am ashamed to say, if the Court please, that I am not
familiar with the story about Captain Lohmann.

   4. Preparation for the resurrection of the German U-boat
   5. Building up of the air force.
   6. Attempt to strengthen our mine arm (Die Mine).
   7. Economic rearmament.
   8. Miscellaneous measures
      (a) The M.B. Aerogiadetic, and;
      (b) Secret evidence.
   III. Planned armament work countenanced by the Reich
   Government but behind the back of the legislative body
   from 1927 to the seizure of power, 1933.
   IV. Rearmament under the leadership of the Reich
   Government in camouflage (from 1933 to the freedom from
   restrictions, 1935)."

The unification of the whole nation which was combined with
the taking over of power on 30th January, 1933, was of
decisive influence on the size and shape of further

While the second chamber, Reichsrat, approached its
dissolution and withdrew as a legislative body, the
Reichstag assumed a composition which could only take a one-
sided attitude toward the rearmament of the armed forces.
The government took over the management of the rearmament
programme upon this foundation.

Then a heading  "Development of the Armed Forces."

This taking over of the management by the Reich Government
developed for the Armed Forces in such a manner that the War
Minister, General von Blomberg, and through him the three
branches of the Armed Forces, received far-reaching powers
from the Reich Cabinet for the development of the Armed
Forces. The whole organisation of the Reich was included in
this way. In view of these powers the collaboration of the
former inspecting body in the management of the secret
expenditure was from then on dispensed with. There remained
only the inspecting duty of the accounting office of the
German Reich.

Another heading, "Independence of the Commander-in-Chief of
the Navy."
The Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, Admiral Raeder, honorary
doctor, had been given far-reaching independence in the
building and development of the Navy. This was only hampered
to the extent that the previous concealment of rearmament
had to be continued in consideration of the Versailles
Treaty. Besides the public budget there remained the
previous special budget, which was greatly increased in view
of the considerable credit for the provision of labour which
was made available by the Reich. Wide powers in the handling
of these credits were given to the Director of the Budget
Department of the Navy, up to 1934 Commodore Schuessler,
afterwards Commodore Forster. These took into consideration
the increased responsibility of the Chief of the Budget.

Another heading, "Declaration of Military Freedom." When the
Fuehrer, relying upon the strengthening of the Armed Forces
carried out in the meanwhile, announced the restoration of
the military sovereignty of the German Reich, the last-
mentioned limitation on rearmament works, namely, the
external camouflage, was eliminated. "Freed from all the
shackles which have hampered our ability to move freely on
and under water, on land and in the air for one and a-half

                                                  [Page 194]

and carried by the newly-awakened fighting spirit of the
whole nation, the Armed Forces, and part of it, the Navy,
can lead with full strength towards its completion the
rearmament already under way with the goal of securing for
the Reich its rightful position in the world."

Home ·  Site Map ·  What's New? ·  Search Nizkor

© The Nizkor Project, 1991-2012

This site is intended for educational purposes to teach about the Holocaust and to combat hatred. Any statements or excerpts found on this site are for educational purposes only.

As part of these educational purposes, Nizkor may include on this website materials, such as excerpts from the writings of racists and antisemites. Far from approving these writings, Nizkor condemns them and provides them so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and antisemitic discourse. Nizkor urges the readers of these pages to condemn racist and hate speech in all of its forms and manifestations.