The Nizkor Project: Remembering the Holocaust (Shoah)

Shofar FTP Archive File: documents/msdos/lfaqw4w.rtf


{\rtf1\ansi \deff5\deflang1033{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 Tms Rmn;}{\f1\froman\fcharset2\fprq2 Symbol;}{\f2\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Helv;}{\f3\fmodern\fcharset0\fprq1 Courier;}
{\f4\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Arial;}{\f6\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 MS Serif;}{\f7\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 MS Sans Serif;}{\f8\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 Times;}{\f9\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Helvetica;}
{\f10\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 System;}{\f11\fmodern\fcharset0\fprq1 Courier New;}{\f12\fmodern\fcharset0\fprq1 LinePrinter;}{\f13\fmodern\fcharset0\fprq1 .USPS ZIP Code Calc 9;}{\f14\fmodern\fcharset0\fprq1 .USPS HP ZIP;}
{\f15\fmodern\fcharset0\fprq1 .USPS FIM Code  ABCD;}{\f16\fmodern\fcharset0\fprq1 .USPS Stamp Here  A;}{\f17\fmodern\fcharset0\fprq1 .USPS ZIP Code Calc 11;}{\f18\fnil\fcharset2\fprq2 Wingdings;}{\f19\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 Book Antiqua;}
{\f20\fnil\fcharset2\fprq2 Monotype Sorts;}{\f21\fmodern\fcharset2\fprq1 MS LineDraw;}{\f22\fdecor\fcharset0\fprq2 Algerian;}{\f23\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Arial Rounded MT Bold;}{\f24\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 Bookman Old Style;}
{\f25\fdecor\fcharset0\fprq2 Braggadocio;}{\f26\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Britannic Bold;}{\f27\fscript\fcharset0\fprq2 Brush Script MT;}{\f28\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Century Gothic;}{\f29\fdecor\fcharset0\fprq2 Colonna MT;}
{\f30\fdecor\fcharset0\fprq2 Desdemona;}{\f31\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 Footlight MT Light;}{\f32\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Impact;}{\f33\fdecor\fcharset0\fprq2 Kino MT;}{\f34\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 Wide Latin;}
{\f35\fscript\fcharset0\fprq2 Matura MT Script Capitals;}{\f36\fdecor\fcharset0\fprq2 Playbill;}{\f37\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Aardvark;}{\f38\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Adelaide;}{\f39\fswiss\fcharset2\fprq2 Alefbet;}{\f40\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Algiers;}
{\f41\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Alto;}{\f42\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Amherst;}{\f43\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Amy;}{\f44\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 ProseAntique;}{\f45\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Arabia;}{\f46\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Architecture;}
{\f47\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Avalon;}{\f48\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 BahamasHeavy;}{\f49\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 BahamasLight;}{\f50\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Bahamas;}{\f51\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 BallroomTango;}{\f52\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Banff;}
{\f53\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Bangkok;}{\f54\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Bard;}{\f55\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Bassoon;}{\f56\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Bedrock;}{\f57\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Beehive;}{\f58\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 BigTop;}
{\f59\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Bodnoff;}{\f60\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Bosanova;}{\f61\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 BravoEngraved;}{\f62\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Bravo;}{\f63\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Briquet;}{\f64\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Brisk;}
{\f65\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Brochure;}{\f66\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Brooklyn;}{\f67\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 NewBrunswick;}{\f68\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Busker;}{\f69\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Campaign;}{\f70\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Cancun;}
{\f71\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Carino;}{\f72\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Carleton;}{\f73\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 CasablancaAntique;}{\f74\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Casablanca;}{\f75\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 CasperOpenFace;}{\f76\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Castanet;}
{\f77\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 DawnCastle;}{\f78\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 CenturionOld;}{\f79\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Chalk;}{\f80\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Charlesworth;}{\f81\fswiss\fcharset2\fprq2 CommonBullets;}{\f82\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 CopperPot;}
{\f83\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 CosmicTwo;}{\f84\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Cosmic;}{\f85\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Cottage;}{\f86\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Crescent;}{\f87\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Cupertino;}{\f88\fswiss\fcharset2\fprq2 Czar;}
{\f89\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Dauphin;}{\f90\fswiss\fcharset2\fprq2 Dixieland;}{\f91\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Eklektic;}{\f92\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Envision;}{\f93\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 ErieContour;}{\f94\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Erie;}
{\f95\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 ErieBlack;}{\f96\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 ErieLight;}{\f97\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Euromode;}{\f98\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Expo;}{\f99\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Florence;}{\f100\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 France;}
{\f101\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 FrankfurtGothicHeavy;}{\f102\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 FrankfurtGothic;}{\f103\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 FrankHighlight;}{\f104\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Freeport;}{\f105\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Frankenstein;}
{\f106\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Fujiyama2;}{\f107\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Fujiyama;}{\f108\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 FujiyamaBlack;}{\f109\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 FujiyamaExtraBold;}{\f110\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 FujiyamaLight;}
{\f111\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Galleria;}{\f112\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Gatineau;}{\f113\fswiss\fcharset2\fprq2 GeographicSymbols;}{\f114\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 GilbertUltraBold;}{\f115\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Glacier;}
{\f116\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 GoldenOldStyle;}{\f117\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 GoldMine;}{\f118\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 GriffonShadow;}{\f119\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Griffon;}{\f120\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Harpoon;}{\f121\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Heidelberg;}
{\f122\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Hollow;}{\f123\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 HomewardBound;}{\f124\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Indiana;}{\f125\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 IndianaSolid;}{\f126\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Ireland;}{\f127\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Jupiter;}
{\f128\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 KabanaBold;}{\f129\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 KabanaBook;}{\f130\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Kastler;}{\f131\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Keypunch;}{\f132\fswiss\fcharset2\fprq2 Keystroke;}{\f133\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Kids;}
{\f134\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Koala;}{\f135\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Korinthia;}{\f136\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Lincoln;}{\f137\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Linus;}{\f138\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 LiquidCrystal;}{\f139\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Lithograph;}
{\f140\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 LithographLight;}{\f141\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Memorandum;}{\f142\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Merlin;}{\f143\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Monospaced;}{\f144\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Motor;}{\f145\fswiss\fcharset2\fprq2 MusicalSymbols;}
{\f146\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Mystical;}{\f147\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Nebraska;}{\f148\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 NewOrder;}{\f149\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 NewOrderEngraved;}{\f150\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Nuance;}{\f151\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Newfoundland;}
{\f152\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Ottawa;}{\f153\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Palette;}{\f154\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 PalmSprings;}{\f155\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Paradise;}{\f156\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Paragon;}{\f157\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 PenguinLight;}
{\f158\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Penguin;}{\f159\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Pepper;}{\f160\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Pipeline;}{\f161\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Playwright;}{\f162\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Posse;}{\f163\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 PowerLine;}
{\f164\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 President;}{\f165\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Quantum;}{\f166\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Renfrew;}{\f167\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Scott;}{\f168\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Scribe;}{\f169\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Shogun;}
{\f170\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Southern;}{\f171\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Stamp;}{\f172\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Surreal;}{\f173\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Switzerland;}{\f174\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 SwitzerlandBlack;}
{\f175\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 SwitzerlandCondBlack;}{\f176\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 SwitzerlandCondensed;}{\f177\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 SwitzerlandCondLight;}{\f178\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 SwitzerlandInserat;}{\f179\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 SwitzerlandLight;}
{\f180\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 SwitzerlandNarrow;}{\f181\fswiss\fcharset2\fprq2 GreekMathSymbols;}{\f182\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Technical;}{\f183\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 ThunderBay;}{\f184\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Timpani;}
{\f185\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 TimpaniHeavy;}{\f186\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Toronto;}{\f187\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Trafalgar;}{\f188\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Umbrella;}{\f189\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Unicorn;}{\f190\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Uptown;}
{\f191\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 USABlack;}{\f192\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 USALight;}{\f193\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Viking;}{\f194\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Vivienne;}{\f195\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Vogue;}{\f196\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 ZurichCalligraphic;}
{\f197\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Arial MT Black;}{\f198\fscript\fcharset0\fprq2 Benguiat Frisky ATT;}{\f199\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 Poster Bodoni ATT;}{\f200\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq2 Gill Sans MT Shadow;}{\f201\froman\fcharset0\fprq2 Goudy Old Style ATT;}
{\f202\fscript\fcharset0\fprq2 Graphite Light ATT;}{\f203\fscript\fcharset0\fprq2 Graphite Light Narrow ATT;}{\f204\fscript\fcharset0\fprq2 Lucida Casual;}{\f205\fnil\fcharset2\fprq2 Milestones;}{\f206\fscript\fcharset0\fprq2 Phyllis ATT;}
{\f207\fscript\fcharset0\fprq2 Signet Roundhand ATT;}{\f208\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Casque OpenFace;}{\f209\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Formal Script;}{\f210\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Ultra Shadow;}{\f211\fnil\fcharset0\fprq2 Marquee Engraved;}
{\f212\fswiss\fcharset0\fprq1 MS Dialog;}{\f213\fnil\fcharset0\fprq1 Small Fonts;}}{\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;
\red255\green255\blue255;\red0\green0\blue128;\red0\green128\blue128;\red0\green128\blue0;\red128\green0\blue128;\red128\green0\blue0;\red128\green128\blue0;\red128\green128\blue128;\red192\green192\blue192;}{\stylesheet{\f5\fs20 \snext0 Normal;}{
\s1\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl1\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxta .}}\b\f5\fs28\kerning28 \sbasedon0\snext0 heading 1;}{\s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 \sbasedon0\snext0 heading 2;}{
\s3\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl3\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxtb .}}\b\f4 \sbasedon0\snext0 heading 3;}{\s4\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl4\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxtb .}}\b\i\f4 \sbasedon0\snext0 heading 4;}{
\s5\sb240\sa60{\*\pn \pnlvl5\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxtb .}}\f5\fs22 \sbasedon0\snext0 heading 5;}{\s6\sb240\sa60{\*\pn \pnlvl6\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxtb .}}\i\f5\fs22 \sbasedon0\snext0 heading 6;}{\s7\sb240\sa60{\*\pn \pnlvl7
\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxtb .}}\f5\fs20 \sbasedon0\snext0 heading 7;}{\s8\sb240\sa60{\*\pn \pnlvl8\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxtb .}}\i\f5\fs20 \sbasedon0\snext0 heading 8;}{\s9\sb240\sa60{\*\pn \pnlvl9
\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxtb .}}\i\f5\fs18 \sbasedon0\snext0 heading 9;}{\*\cs10 \additive Default Paragraph Font;}{\s15\tqc\tx4320\tqr\tx8640 \f5\fs20 \sbasedon0\snext15 header;}{\s16\tqc\tx4320\tqr\tx8640 \f5\fs20 \sbasedon0\snext16 footer;}
{\*\cs17 \additive\sbasedon10 page number;}{\s18\sb120\sa120\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \b\caps\f4\fs20 \sbasedon0\snext0 toc 1;}{\s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \scaps\f4\fs20 \sbasedon0\snext0 toc 2;}{\s20\li200\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \i\f4\fs20 \sbasedon0\snext0 toc 3;}{
\s21\li400\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \f4\fs18 \sbasedon0\snext0 toc 4;}{\s22\li600\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \f4\fs18 \sbasedon0\snext0 toc 5;}{\s23\li800\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \f4\fs18 \sbasedon0\snext0 toc 6;}{\s24\li1000\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \f4\fs18 \sbasedon0\snext0 toc 7;}{
\s25\li1200\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \f4\fs18 \sbasedon0\snext0 toc 8;}{\s26\li1400\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \f4\fs18 \sbasedon0\snext0 toc 9;}}{\info{\author Kenneth McVay}{\operator Kenneth McVay}{\creatim\yr1996\mo7\dy5\hr10\min9}{\revtim\yr1996\mo7\dy22\hr15\min50}
{\printim\yr1996\mo7\dy22\hr15\min41}{\version11}{\edmins169}{\nofpages0}{\nofwords0}{\nofchars0}{\vern49213}}\widowctrl\ftnbj\aenddoc\makebackup\formshade \fet0\sectd \linex0\endnhere {\footer \pard\plain \s16\qc\tqc\tx4320\tqr\tx8640 \f5\fs20 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
\par \pard \s16\qc\tqc\tx4320\tqr\tx8640 {\fs16 The Nizkor Project - Research Guide to the Luechter Report
\par http://www.nizkor.org/faqs/leuchter/
\par This document may be reproduced and distributed, without charge (excepting printing costs) for educational use.
\par 
\par }\pard \s16\qc\tqc\tx4320\tqr\tx8640 {\b\i\fs18\ul The Nizkor Project, 462-1150 N. Terminal Avenue, Nanaimo, B.C. Canada V9S 5T8}{\b\fs18   Pg}{\b . }{\field{\*\fldinst {\cs17  PAGE }}{\fldrslt {\cs17 23}}}{\fs16 
\par }}{\*\pnseclvl1\pnucrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl2\pnucltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl3\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl4\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta )}}
{\*\pnseclvl5\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl6\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl7\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl8
\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl9\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}\pard\plain \qc \f5\fs20 {\b\i\fs36\ul 
\par }\pard \qc {\b\i\fs36\ul 
\par 
\par }{\b\i\fs36 The Nizkor Project
\par 
\par The Leuchter Report:
\par a
\par Research Guide
\par }\pard \qr {\b\i\fs36 
\par }\pard \qc 
\par \pard 
\par \pard \qc {\i\fs18 The attempt to justify an evil deed has perhaps more pernicious consequences than the evil deed itself. The justification of a past crime is the planting and cultivation of future crimes. inde
ed, the repetition of a crime is sometimes part of a device of justification; we do it again and again to convince ourselves and others that it is a common thing and not an enormity. (Eric Hoffer, The Passionate State of Mind. New York: Harper & Brothers,
 1954.)
\par }\pard 
\par \pard\plain \s18\sb120\sa120\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \b\caps\f4\fs20 {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst  TOC \\o "1-3" }{\fldrslt 1. Introduction & Editorial Notes\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\caps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683017  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\caps0 
 PAGEREF _Toc362683017 }}{\fldrslt {\caps0 2}}}}}
\par \pard\plain \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \scaps\f4\fs20 1.1 Copyright\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683018  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683018 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 3}}}}}
\par \pard \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 1.2 Overview\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683019  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683019 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 3}}}}}
\par \pard\plain \s18\sb120\sa120\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \b\caps\f4\fs20 2. Point, Counterpoint\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\caps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683020  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\caps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683020 }}{\fldrslt {\caps0 4}}}}}
\par \pard\plain \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \scaps\f4\fs20 2.1 Disparities in Hydrocyanic Compound Levels\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683021  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683021 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 4}}}}}
\par \pard \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 2.2 The Explosive Property of Zyklon B & Furnace Proximity\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683022  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683022 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 6}}}}}
\par 2.3 Gas Chambers Could Not Have Been Opened Safely in 20-30 Minutes\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683023  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683023 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 8}}}}}
\par 2.4 The "Extermination" Chambers Were Actually Morgues\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683024  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683024 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 8}}}}}
\par 2.5 It Was Impossible to Kill 6 Million People at Auschwitz\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683025  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683025 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 9}}}}}
\par 2.6 Doors of Gas Chambers Too Weak to Prevent Escape\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683026  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683026 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 10}}}}}
\par 2.7 They would not have used Zyklon-B for gassing\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683027  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683027 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 10}}}}}
\par \pard \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 2.8 The gas chambers were never sealed... or there was no provision to exhaust the gas from them... or there was no way for the guards to release the pellets into them, or....\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0 
 GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683028  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683028 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 11}}}}}
\par \pard \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 2.9 If the gas chambers were ventilated, the gas would kill people outside.\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683029  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683029 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 13}}}}}

\par 2.10 If so many people were actually killed and cremated, where is all the ash?\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683030  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683030 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 13}}}}}
\par \pard \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 2.11 The people who dropped the Zyklon-B into the chambers would have died from the gas themselves.\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683031  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683031 }
}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 13}}}}}
\par 2.12 The death lists from Auschwitz do not show that any people were gassed, and point to a smaller number of victims.\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683032  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683032 }}{\fldrslt {
\scaps0 13}}}}}
\par 2.13 There was a swimming pool in Auschwitz, hence it could not have been an extermination camp.\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683033  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683033 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 13}}}}}
\par 2.14 Much of the area of Auschwitz has a high water table, therefore corpses could not be burned in ditches.\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683034  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683034 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 14}}}
}}
\par \pard \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 2.15 How come eye witnesses to the gassings survived? Why didn't the Nazis kill them?\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683035  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683035 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 
14}}}}}
\par 2.16 Fumes from a diesel engine are not toxic enough to kill people.\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683036  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683036 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 14}}}}}
\par 2.17 There were not enough Jews in Europe to account for the number of 6 million victims\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683037  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683037 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 16}}}}}
\par 2.18 The "myth" of the Holocaust was created solely for the financial benefit of Israel\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683038  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683038 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 17}}}}}
\par \pard\plain \s18\sb120\sa120\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \b\caps\f4\fs20 3. Leuchter's "credibility," or rather, his lack of same.\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\caps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683039  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\caps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683039 }}{\fldrslt {
\caps0 18}}}}}
\par \pard\plain \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \scaps\f4\fs20 3.1 Leuchter\rquote s perjury in Canadian Court\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683040  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683040 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 18}}}}}
\par \pard \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 3.2 Leuchter's "credibility," or rather, his lack of same, among American prison administrators\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683041  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683041 }
}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 20}}}}}
\par \pard\plain \s18\sb120\sa120\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \b\caps\f4\fs20 4. Research Materials & Sources\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\caps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683042  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\caps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683042 }}{\fldrslt {\caps0 21}}}}}
\par \pard\plain \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 \scaps\f4\fs20 4.1 Recommended Reading\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683043  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683043 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 21}}}}}
\par \pard \s19\tqr\tldot\tx8640 4.2 Abbreviations Used in Citations\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683044  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683044 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 22}}}}}
\par 4.3 Glossary\tab {\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683045  }{\field{\*\fldinst {\scaps0  PAGEREF _Toc362683045 }}{\fldrslt {\scaps0 22}}}}}
\par 4.4 Works Cited\tab {\field{\*\fldinst  GOTOBUTTON _Toc362683046  {\field{\*\fldinst  PAGEREF _Toc362683046 }{\fldrslt 22}}}}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 }}\pard\plain \f5\fs20 
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683017}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\f5\fs28\kerning28 1.\tab}\pard\plain \s1\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl1\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxta .}}\b\f5\fs28\kerning28 Introduction & Editorial Notes{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683017}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 This document provides a counterpoint to assertions commonly made by those who deny that anyone was gassed at the Auschwitz-Birkenau and Treblinka death camps during World
 War II; who, in fact, deny that the gas chambers even existed.  (At least a million people were ruthlessly exterminated at Auschwitz, and seven-hundred-thousand more at Treblinka - the worst of the Nazi extermination camps in terms of victims slaughtered
.) 
\par \pard 
\par \pard The most prestigious source in Germany regarding the crimes of the Nazis during WW2, the "Institute for Contemporary History" in Munich, sums up the facts in a recent publication.  (For the full document, {\ul get pub/orgs/german/ifz/ifz.report})

\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 Treblinka 
(district Warschau, general government) from the end of July 1942 on had three gas chambers and received at the start of September 1942 furthermore ten larger gas chambers.  Up to the dissolution of the camp in November 1943 altogether 700,000 Jews were k
illed here by carbon monoxide.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 Auschwitz-Birkenau (in the formerly Polish, in 1939 adjoined to the "Reich" upper eastern Silesian area, south eastern of Kattowitz): The extermination camp in Birkenau, established in the second half of 1941, was joined to t
he concentration camp Auschwitz, existing since May 1940.  From January 1942 on in five gas chambers and from the end of June 1943 in four additional large gassing-rooms gassings with Zyklon B have been undertaken. Up until November 1944 more than one mil
lion Jews and at least 4000 gypsies have been murdered by gas. ({\ul Get pub/camps/auschwitz/auschwitz.faq1, and ~/auschwitz.faq2})  
\par \pard 
\par \pard (Note that these numbers include only people gassed - many were murdered using more "conventional" means) 
\par \pard 
\par \pard This is by no means a replacement for serious research - just an expose of common frauds like the "Leuchter report", and a guide to scholarly sources.
\par \pard 
\par \pard This document was prepared by Danny Keren and Jamie McCarthy, and edited to its present form by Ken McVay.  Comments, corrections, and additions are welcome.
\par \pard 
\par \pard The appearance of a quotation mark within a proper name indicates that the previous letter should be read as an umlaut, although some quoted material appends a trailing 'e' instead.  (I.e.  Hoess and Ho\rdblquote ss reference the same name.)
\par \pard 
\par \pard Documents cited in this work which are available from our server are noted in the form (Get path/filename). The site {\b\ul ftp.nizkor.org} accepts anonymous ftp logins.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683018}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 1.1\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Copyright{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683018}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 This post, as a collection of information, is Copyright \'a9
1993-1996 by Ken McVay and Danny Keren as a work of literature.  Non-commercial distribution by any electronic means is granted with the understanding that the article not be altered in any way. Per
mission to distribute in printed form must be obtained in writing. The removal of this copyright notice is forbidden.
\par \pard 
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683019}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 1.2\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Overview{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683019}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 
"His opinion on this report is that there were never any gassings or there was never any exterminations carried on in this facility. As far as I am concerned, from what I've heard, he is not capable of giving that opinion... He is not in a position to say
, as he said so sweepingly in this report, what could not have been carried on in these facilities." Thus did the presiding judge dismiss Fred Leuchter's report as "ridiculous" and "preposterous" during
 the Canadian trial of Ernst Zuendel. Lest there be any misunderstanding about the Court's finding: "On the question of the functioning of the crematoria ... the judge's decision was unequivocal. He could not testify on this topic for a simple reason:

\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 He hasn't any expertise." ({\i Lipstadt}, 166)
\par \pard 
\par \pard Fred Leuchter is a man with no formal training in either chemistry or toxicology (he obtained a BA in history in 1964), and yet he claims to be a professional engineer - an assertion that has landed him in hot water 
in his home state.  In 1988, at the request of Canada's Ernst Zuendel, Mr.  Leuchter went to Poland and visited the site of the Auschwitz concentration camp; (Mr.  Zuendel financed Leuchter's trip to Poland.) The result of this journey was the "Leuchter R
eport." Here's what Mr.  Leuchter had to say about his "investigation:"
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 The purpose [of the investigation and subsequent report] does not include a determination of any numbers of persons who died or were killed by means other than gassing or as to whether
 an actual Holocaust occurred.  It, further, is not the intent of this author to redefine Holocaust in historical terms, but simply to supply scientific evidence and information obtained at the actual sites and to render an opinion based on all available 
scientific, engineering and quantitative data as to the purpose and usages of the alleged execution gas chambers and crematory facilities at the investigated locations.  (Foner)
\par \pard 
\par \pard You will note, as we will demonstrate using Leuchter's own sworn testimony, that Mr.  Leuchter failed to demonstrate any concern for the truth, even while under oath.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
While testifying at Mr.  Zuendel's trial in Canada, Leuchter gave false evidence concerning his professional relationship with the administration of two American prisons regarding gas chambers, and proved himself to be unfamiliar with the most basic facts
 about the lethal gas Hydrogen Cyanide, including its flammability and the concentrations required for delousing purposes.
\par \pard 
\par \pard The "Leuchter Report" purports to "scientif
ically demonstrate" that people were not killed by Zyklon-B at Auschwitz.  It is composed of old claims made by the French Holocaust denier Faurisson, as well as some new ones.  Many of the claims appear in the Institute for Historical Review's "66 Q&A on
 the Holocaust" pamphlet, and also in arguments offered by others who deny the Holocaust.
\par \pard 
\par \pard \qc Zyklon-B
\par \pard 
\par \pard Zyklon-B is a powerful insecticide.  It releases HCN, Hydrocyanic acid, a gas - Zyklon-B is the carrier, a material soaked with the gas; usually it comes in
 the shape of small pellets or disks.  HCN is what causes death.  While interacting with iron and concrete, it creates compounds ("Hydrocyanic compounds").  Leuchter concedes that these compounds were found in the ruins of the gas chambers in Auschwitz (a
s reaffirmed by the findings of the Polish government institute, which completely rejects Leuchter's conclusions - see Section 2.01).
\par \pard 
\par \pard HCN is extremely poisonous to humans.  It is used in execution gas chambers in the US; the first such was built in Arizona
 in 1920.  It is absurd to claim (as the deniers do), that Germany in the 1940's could not handle "technical difficulties" in using HCN for execution - "difficulties" that were easily solved in 1920.  Moreover, the Germans had a lot of experience with HCN
, as it was extensively used for delousing.  (For an extensive discussion of Zyklon B, {\ul get pub/camps/auschwitz/auschwitz.faq1})
\par \pard 
\par \pard There were two types of gas chambers in Auschwitz: those used for delousing clothes ("delousing gas chambers") and those used for
 killing people on a massive scale ("extermination gas chambers"). The delousing gas chambers were a standard feature, and were left intact by the SS (as opposed to the extermination gas chambers, which were dynamited in an effort to conceal criminal acti
vity from the rapidly approaching Soviet Army).  The deniers try to confuse the issue by mixing the two types of chambers.  For instance, they show pictures of the doors for the delousing chambers, and note that they are too weak to withstand the pressure
 of people trying to escape. Of course, the doors for the extermination chambers are completely different, but that fact is quietly overlooked (see 2.06).
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683020}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\f5\fs28\kerning28 2.\tab}\pard\plain \s1\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl1\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxta .}}\b\f5\fs28\kerning28 Point, Counterpoint{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683020}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Holocaust denial often involves the same assertions, repeated endlessly, regardless of response.  We present many of them for consideration here, along with our response.
\par \pard 
\par \pard The photographs we refer to can be found in Pressac, and many are available from our archives in GIF format. 
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683021}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.1\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Disparities in Hydrocyanic Compound Levels{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683021}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Holocaust deni
ers often claim that since more hydrocyanic compounds were found in the delousing chambers than in the ruins of the so-called "extermination" chambers at Auschwitz, and the reverse would be true if people were actually gassed there, it is clear that no ga
ssings occurred.
\par \pard 
\par \pard But - HCN is far more effective on warm-blooded animals (including humans) than on insects, so the period of exposure to HCN is far longer for delousing clothes than that required for homicidal gassings, and a much lower concentration is n
ecessary to kill people instead of insects.
\par \pard 
\par \pard A concentration of up to 16,000 ppm (parts per million) is sometimes used, with exposure times of up to 72 hours, to kill insects, but as little as 300 ppm will cause death in humans within fifteen minutes or so.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Breitman offers background information about the development of Zyklon B as a killing device, and provides clear evidence that the Nazis determined the effective Zyklon B concentration through a process of trial and error.  ({\ul 
Get pub/camps/auschwitz/auschwitz.faq1})
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
When the difference in the concentration of gas required to kill insects and humans was mentioned in Leuchter's cross-examination in the Zuendel trial, Leuchter responded: "I've never killed beetles.  I, you know, I don't know.  I haven't made computation
s for killing beetles" - Hardly the response one would expect from an "expert" on the subject...
\par \pard 
\par \pard Because of the relatively small concentrations required to exterminate humans as opposed to lice, and because of the far shorter exposure time req
uired, the HCN in the gas chambers used to kill humans hardly had time to form chemical compounds on the walls.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
The gas chambers were not very large (those in Kremas II and III were about 210 square meters), and the Zyklon B was dropped through four openings in the roof, spreading the gas very quickly.  These openings are still visible in the ruins of the gas chamb
ers, and rare photographs of them, taken while the camp was in operation, exist, and copies are readily available (Brugioni et al) from the sources noted in Section 6.1, below.  Since the concentration used was higher than the lethal one, death was swift.

\par \pard 
\par \pard 
Leuchter's data is further suspect because the delousing chambers where he obtained his samples were left intact by the SS, while the extermination chambers were destroyed.  Clearly, their walls were exposed to the elements for forty-five years, which wou
ld certainly effect the validity of the samples taken.  (The ruins of Krema II are covered with about three feet of water during certain periods
 of the year, and HCN compounds would eventually dissolve under such conditions.  Nonetheless, so many gassings occurred there that some of the compound did remain).
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
Summarizing, the walls of the extermination gas chambers were in contact with HCN for a much shorter time then those of the delousing chambers, and for the last 45 years were exposed to surroundings which dissolve the compounds, while the delousing rooms 
were not. Therefore it is obvious that less traces of compounds would remain in them.  This debunks the major "amazing discovery" in Leuchter's report, which, in retrospect, wasn't 'amazing' at all.
\par \pard 
\par \pard This fact - that all, or most, of the compounds would vanish during 45 years of exposure - is quite clearly stated in the report written by the experts at the Cracow Institute of Forensic Research:
\par \pard 
\par \pard \qc INSTITUTE OF FORENSIC RESEARCH
\par In the name of Prof. Dr. Jan Sehn, Krakow
\par Division of Forensic Toxicology
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 Krakow, 24 Sept. 1990
\par \pard \li720 Westerplatte 9 / Code 31-033
\par Tel. 505-44, 592-24, 287-50
\par Telex 0325213 eksad ...
\par 
\par \pard \li720 
The hydrocyanic acid (HCN) that is released from the Zyklon B preparation is a liquid with a boiling point of about 27 degrees Celsius.  It has an acidic character, and therefore forms compounds with metallic salts, which are known as cyanides.  The salts
 of alkaline metals (such as sodium and potassium) are water soluble.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 Hydrocyanic acid is a very weak acid, and accordingly its salts dissolve easily in stronger acids.  Even carbonic acid, which is formed as a reaction of carbon dioxide with water, will dissolve ferro-cyanide.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 
Stronger acids, such as sulfuric acids, easily dissolve the cyanides.  The compounds of cyanide ions with heavy metals are longer lasting.  This includes the already mentioned Prussian blue, although this will also slowly dissolve in an acidic environment
.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 Therefore, one can hardly assume that traces of cyanic compounds could still be detected in construction materials (plaster, brick) after 45 years, after being subjected to the weather and the elements (rain, acid oxides, e
specially sulfuric and nitrogen oxides).  More reliable would be the analysis of wall plaster [samples] from closed rooms which were not subject to weather and the elements (including acid rain).
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 The discovery of hydrocyanic acid compounds in samples of material which had been subject to the elements can only be accidental.
\par \pard  
\par \pard See {\b\ul http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/orgs/polish/institute-for-forensic-research/} for the Institute's 1994 report.
\par \pard 
\par \pard The deniers often claim that the gas chamber in Krema I was left intact, 
and therefore its walls were not exposed to the elements. Curiously, they also make great issue of the fact that Krema I was converted into an air-raid shelter, and then rebuilt by the Soviet Army, after the liberation of the camp, to reproduce its origin
al shape, saying that it has been used to mislead the public, who were told that people were gassed in the building.  (The logic of their holding both views when it seems advantageous to do so will perhaps escape you, but then logic has not been a demonst
rated asset when it comes to Holocaust denial.  See Section 3.0.)
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
The modification consisted of essentially removing some partitioning walls inside the gas chamber, which were added as a common feature of bomb shelters.  Nonetheless, this is the room in which people were gassed; there are still traces of cyanide on its 
walls, as Leuchter admits (he found traces in 6 of 7 samples).
\par \pard 
\par \pard But - the gas chamber of Krema I was used only for a short time, before the conversion.  This, and the fact that "only" about te
n thousand people were murdered within it, compared to three-hundred-fifty-thousand and four-hundred-thousand in Kremas II and III, explains why relatively small amounts of cyanide compounds remain.  The other Kremas were destroyed by the SS prior to the 
Soviet liberation.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Finally, cyanide compounds were found on the ventilation grills of the extermination chambers, proving beyond doubt that gassing did take place within.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683022}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.2\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 The Explosive Property of Zyklon B & Furnace Proximity{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683022}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Holocaust denial often asserts that Zyklon B could not have been used for killing in the gas chambers, because it is explosive, and the furnaces were nearby.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
They overlook, however the fact that the concentration of HCN necessary to cause death is nearly 200 times lower than that necessary to cause an explosion.  Although the SS used a concentration higher than the lethal one, it was far less than what would b
e required to cause an explosion.
\par \pard 
\par \pard As a reference, one can look at "The Merck Index" and the "CRC handbook of Chemistry and Phys
ics", or consult any manual dealing with toxicity and flammability of chemicals.  For HCN, a concentration of 300 ppm (parts per million) kills humans within a few minutes (Merck, 632, entry 4688), while the minimal concentration  that can result in an ex
plosion is 56,000 ppm.
\par \pard 
\par Frank Deis provides the following information from Merck, with editorial comments in [] brackets:
\par 
\par \pard \li720 \ldblquote -Hydrocyanic acid;- "Blausaeure" (German).  CHN; mol wt 27.03 ...  HCN.  Prepd on a large scale by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia
-methane mixtures [refs omitted].  May also be prepd by the catalytic decompn of formamide. Conveniently prepd in the laboratory by acidifying NaCN or K4[Fe(CN)6].  <[Editor's note: this last formula is quite similar to, but different from Prussian Blue, 
also a major topic in the Leuchter Report.  Prussian Blue is Ferric Ferrocyanide, or Ferric hexacyanoferrate (II).  The formula is Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3.  The =ferric= salt of ferrocyanide is insoluble in water.  Other salts, such as the =potassium= salt of ferro
cyanide, are quite soluble in water]> [more refs omitted]
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 \ldblquote 
Colorless gas or liquid; characteristic odor; very weakly acid (does not redden litmus); burns in air with a blue flame; =intensely poisonous= even when mixed with air. d(gas) 0.941 (air = 1) <[Editor's note: notice, the gas is LIGHTER than air]>; d(liq)
 0.687.  mp -13.4.  bp 25.6 <[ latest defense of Leuchter made a big deal out of how the gas would condense out on the cold walls.  This would clearly happen to some extent in a cold room.  If the roo
m were filled with people, the gas would stay warm]> Miscible with water, alc; slightly sol in ether.  LC50 <[lethal concentration that kills 50% of test animals, NOTICE that this is dependent BOTH on time and on concentration!]> in rats, mice, dogs: 544 
ppm (5 min), 169 ppm (30 min), 300 ppm (15 min), [ref omitted]. 
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 \ldblquote Human toxicity: High concn produces tachypnea (causing increased intake of cyanide) <[tachy = rapid, pnea = breathing]> then dyspnea <[dys = difficult, pnea = breathing]> paralysis, unconsci
ousness, convulsions, and respiratory arrest.  Headache, vertigo, nausea, and vomiting may occur with lesser concentrations.  Chronic exposure over long periods may cause fatigue, weakness. Exposure to 150 ppm for 1/2 to 1 hr may endanger life. Death may 
result from a few min exposure to 300 ppm. Average fatal dose <[ingested]> 50 to 60 mg.  =Antidote= Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 \ldblquote Use: The compressed gas is used for exterminating rodents and insects and for killing insects on trees, etc.  =Must be handled by specially trained experts.=
\par \pard \li720 
\par \ldblquote <[end of article]> (Merck, 632)
\par \pard 
\par \pard \ldblquote 
Cyanide is a small molecule.  Basically it is toxic because it resembles the oxygen molecule, O2 or OO looks like HCN to the binding sites in the mitochondria and also probably to the heme groups in hemoglobin and myoglobin.  If Cyanide "sits down" on th
e cytochrome a/a3 complex at the end of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, then the oxygen you breathe no longer does you any good.  You can't use it as an acceptor for high ener
gy electrons, and you can't make ATP by the usual method of oxidative phosphorylation.  Your body makes you breathe faster at first, in an attempt to overcome it, and then cells start dying from lack of oxygen and lack of ATP energy.
\par \pard 
\par \pard \ldblquote 
In general, the statements about chemistry in Paul Grubach's defense of the Leuchter report seem valid.  (JHR, V12, #4) The =premises= are of course open to question, or wrong.  Yes, high concentrations of cyanide will cause formation of prussian blue on
 cold wet bricks that 
contain high levels of iron ions.  But were the bricks really cold and wet?  Was the air cold enough for the HCN to condense? Did "high concentrations" exist, given the relatively low concentrations required for killing human subjects, as opposed to insec
ts?
\par \pard 
\par \pard \ldblquote Anyway, I hope this information proves useful.  I teach Biochemistry at Rutgers University, and that's where my information about cyanide toxicity comes from.  The Merck Index is a standard reference book that probably every library has.
\rdblquote 
\par \pard 
\par \pard  Frank Deis ({\i DEIS@PISCES.RUTGERS.EDU})
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683023}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.3\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Gas Chambers Could Not Have Been Opened Safely in 20-30 Minutes{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683023}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 
\par \pard 
The claim is often heard that it takes 20 hours to air a room which was disinfected with Zyklon-B, and therefore the eyewitness accounts giving a time of 20-30 minutes from when the gassing started to when the bodies where carried out is impossible, becau
se the people carrying out the bodies would perish.
\par \pard 
\par \pard It is true that if one disinfects a building in ordinary commercial use, it should not be reentered within 20 ho
urs.  That figure, however, has no meaning relative to the extermination chambers, which were forcibly ventilated.  Fifteen minutes was ample time to replace the air after a gassing.  When ventilation was not used, the Sonderkommando (prisoners used as fo
rced labor) who removed the bodies wore gas masks.  The Germans had plenty of experience with gas, especially HCN, which was widely used for delousing.  They knew how to work with it safely.  It is absurd to use the 20 hour figure in this context, as it d
oe
s not assume forced ventilation and takes a huge safety factor into account.  The SS didn't care much for the safety of the Sonderkommando who had to enter the gas chambers to take the corpses out in any event.  In some cases, these people did suffer from
 the remaining gas (see, for instance, {\i Pressac}, p. 473)
\par \pard 
\par \pard Furthermore, what makes ventilation difficult and lengthy is the presence of rugs, furniture, curtains, etc.  Needless to say, these were not present in the gas chambers - there was just bare concrete, making ventilation very fast and efficient.

\par \pard 
\par \pard 
If the "20 hours ventilation period" above was true, this would mean that the corpses of people executed using cyanide gas in US prisons would remain tied to the chair 20 hours after they were killed...clearly nonsense, as Fred Leuchter, who claims expert
ise in gas chamber operation, knows full well.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683024}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.4\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 The "Extermination" Chambers Were Actually Morgues{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683024}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Holocaust denial often claims that the "alleged" extermination chambers were actually morgues, and that Zyklon-B was used in them as a disinfectant.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
This claim stems from the fact that Hydrocyanic compounds were found on the ventilation grills of the gas chambers in Krema II and III (the chemical analysis was carried out by Dr.  Jan Robel of the Cracow Forensic Institute in December 1945, and was part
 of the evidence in the trial of Auschwitz commander Hoess).  This proves that gassing did take place in that chamber - but since this runs contrary to the deniers claims that it was an underground morgue, they claimed 
"a morgue is disinfected with Zyklon-B."
\par \pard 
\par \pard Unfortunately for the people offering this assertion as truth, Zyklon-B is useless for disinfecting corpses, as it does not kill anaerobic bacteria - it kills only aerobic organisms.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
Finally, the "morgue" is specifically referred to as a "gassing cellar" in a letter from the Auschwitz construction department to SS General Kammler, January 29, 1943.  Why call a morgue "gassing cellar?" And why is the other underground room called "undr
essing cellar?" (see {\i Pressac}, p.  221; also {\i The Final Solution: The Attempt to Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945}
 - G.  Reitlinger, South Brunswick, T.  Yosellof, 1968, p.  158.  These documents are reproduced in the "AUSCHWITZ" section of the file "Original Nazi Documents", together with other documents about the process of gassing in Auschwitz).
\par \pard 
\par \pard The following correspondence between an SS officer and the firm which manufactured the crematoriums shows that the underground cellars in Kremas II and III were to be preheated. Needles
s to say, this proves that they were not designed to serve as morgues; it does not make much sense to heat a morgue. It does make sense to heat a homicidal gas chamber, to facilitate the evaporation of the Zyklon-B. 
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 "Letter from SS-Sturmbannfuehrer Jahrling to Topf & Sons,  March 6 1943 
\par 
\par \ldblquote Subject: KL Auschwitz Krematorien II and III
\par 
\par \pard \li720 \ldblquote In accordance with your suggestion, the service agrees that cellar 1 should be preheated with the air coming from the rooms of the 3 forced draught installations. The suppl
y and installation of the ductwork and blowers necessary to this end are to be effected as soon as possible. As you point out in your above-mentioned letter,  execution should commence this week. We would ask you to send in triplicate detailed quote for s
upply and installation.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 \ldblquote At the same time, we would ask you to send an additional quotation for the modification of the air-extraction installation in the undressing room." ({\i Pressac}, 221)
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683025}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.5\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 It Was Impossible to Kill 6 Million People at Auschwitz{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683025}
\par \pard\plain \li720 \f5\fs20 {\i "Judging by the amount and area of the gas chambers, and the number of the Kremas, it was impossible to kill 6 million people in the time interval in which the concentration camps existed."
\par }\pard 
\par \pard 
No-one claims that 6 million people died at Auschwitz.  Many died in other death camps, in the ghettos and in occupied Soviet territory. Estimates of the number of people who were gassed to death in Auschwitz vary, but the lowest is 900,000, and the highe
st about 1,600,000.  It is obvious that the extermination and cremation facilities in Auschwitz could take care of such a number.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Just look at the photographs of the furnaces of Krema II ({\i Pressac}
, 367) There were five Kremas in Auschwitz.  Number II, for instance, had 15 huge furnaces, especially designed to burn efficiently and quickly.  Each could consume 3 to 4 bodies at once (remember that many children were present, and many of the people we
re emaciated), and do so in a maximum of 45 minutes.  The SS experimented with different combinations of corpse types and coke to determine which would provide the most cost-efficient results!  ({\i Mueller}, 60-61; {\i Klarsfeld}, 99-100; {\ul 
Get pub/camps/auschwitz/krema-I.001})
\par \pard 
\par \pard The figure Leuchter gives as the maximum number of people that could be executed in a week - 1693 - is absurd, as is demonstrated by the following calculation for a single Krema, number II:
\par \pard 
\par \pard One gas chamber, about 210 square meters (2220 square feet) in area, easily accommodated a few hundred people, who were crammed into it. (See Section 2.16)
\par \pard 
\par \pard Fifteen furnaces, each capable of incinerating at least 3 bodies in 45 minutes, could dispose of at least 720 bodies in a 12-hour day.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
In a single year, Krema II could incinerate over a quarter-million bodies.  Add that to the capabilities of Kremas III, IV, and V, and you begin to get the picture.  In addition, bodies were also burned in massive pits.  Two gruesome photographs of these 
"burning pits", taken in secrecy in Auschwitz-Birkenau, have survived.  They are of reasonable quality, and show men standing inside a pile of naked bodies,
 with the smoking pit in front of them.  Some bodies are being dragged into the pit.  The photographs are reproduced in {\i Pressac}, (422) and are also available as GIF files.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
As a reference, one can look at a letter dated June 20 1943, sent to SS General Kammler in Berlin, citing the number of bodies that can be disposed of in 24 working hours as 4,756.  A photograph of the letter and its serial number in German archives appea
rs in {\i Pressac} (247). (This is lower than 5 x 1440 = 7,200 because some of the Kremas
 had fewer furnaces than II and III.  The exact breakdown, specified in the letter from Jahrling to Kammler, is 340 corpses for Krema I, 768 for IV and V, 1440 for II and III.  This letter is available in GIF format.
\par \pard 
\par \pard It is naive at best, and contemptuously dishonest, to claim that such a number of crematoriums were provided for anything other than the disposal of bodies created by the mass murder of helpless victims.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Leuchter arrives at his figures assuming that the people could occupy the gas chambers at
 a density of maximum 1 person per 9 square feet (!!) and that it would take a week (!!) to ventilate the gas chambers before they could be used for another mass execution.  These assumptions are absurd.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Lastly, two other gassing installation existed in Auschwitz - the so-called "Bunker I" and "Bunker II".  They were also demolished by the fleeing SS.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683026}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.6\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Doors of Gas Chambers Too Weak to Prevent Escape{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683026}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Holocaust denial asserts that the doors of the "alleged" gas chambers were much too weak to withstand the pressure of people trying to escape death from inside the chambers.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
Since none of the Kremas remained in their original state (Bunker I & II and Kremas II,III,IV and V destroyed, and Krema I modified) there is no physical evidence as to what the doors of the extermination gas chambers looked like.  However, a door which p
robably belonged to an extermination gas chamber was discovered in the camp's building yard; it is massive, and reinforced with iron bars.  Furthermore, the small peephole is protected from 
the inside with a strong metal grid, probably installed so the victims would not break the glass in the peephole.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
Those making this claim present pictures of doors for the delousing chambers, which were not fortified, presumably on the assumption that viewers are too inept to notice the switch.  For a photograph of a door probably used in an extermination gas chamber
, see {\i Pressac} (486).
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683027}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.7\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 They would not have used Zyklon-B for gassing{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683027}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Holocaust denial often claims that if the Nazis had intended to kill people by lethal gassing, they would have used something other than Zyklon B.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Zyklon-B was in use at Auschwitz as a delousing agent, and was thus readily available.  The Nazis had experience in its safe use as well, which made it even more attractive.
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 
In addition, Zyklon B was easy to ship and to store, which also made it attractive to the SS, who ordered enough of it, as Hoess pointed out in his testimony, to kill two million people. Yitzhak Arad mentions Christian Wirth's rejection of Zyklon-B for us
e in exte
rminations: Wirth developed his own ideas on the basis of the experiences he had gained in the Euthanasia program.  Thus, in Belzec he decided to supply the fixed gas chamber with gas produced by the internal-combustion engine of a motorcar.  [He] rejecte
d Cyanide B which was later used at Auschwitz.  This gas was produced by private firms and its extensive use in Belzec might have aroused suspicion and led to problems of supply.  He therefore preferred a system of extermination based on ordinary, univers
ally available gasoline and diesel fuel.  ({\i YVS XVI}, 211)
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
In a letter requesting for a truck to bring Zyklon-B to Auschwitz, the standard camouflage term "resettlement of Jews" is used to refer to extermination.  Another such document asks for "material for special treatment" - another term used to disguise exte
rmination (See {\i Pressac}, 557.  For more examples of the camouflage terms noted, see file of original Nazi documents).
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720       Radio message 13 SS Garrison Radio Station Auschwitz Origin WVHA
\par       [SS economic administration head office]
\par 
\par Received 2nd October 1942 in the Kommandantur of Auschwitz Concentration camp
\par 
\par \pard \li720 The movement authorization for one 5 Ton truck with trailer to Dessau and back in order to pick up material for the resettlement of the Jews, is hereby accorded.
\par \pard \li720 
\par The authorization is to be given to the driver.
\par 
\par Liebehenschel
\par SS Lieutenant Colonel
\par \pard \li720 Permanent representative of the head of the service with the rank of Waffen SS Lieutenant General
\par \pard \li720 
\par For file
\par 
\par Head of the radio station
\par 
\par \pard When camp adjutant R.  Mulka was asked by Judge Hofmeyer what "material for the resettlement of the Jews" meant, he answered "well, sure.  Zyklon-B" (The Auschwitz trial in Frankfurt, 11 Sep.  1964).
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683028}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.8\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 
The gas chambers were never sealed... or there was no provision to exhaust the gas from them... or there was no way for the guards to release the pellets into them, or....{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683028}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 As stated earlier, the extermination chambers were dynamited by the SS when they deserted the camp.  There is therefore no direct evidence of what they l
ooked like when they were in operation other than a few photographs taken by the Allies and the SS during the war (See {\i Brugioni}
).  The construction plans do include the air extraction systems, as one readily sees (in krema3.gif and others) and the air extraction system is mentioned in many documents. Some of the ventilation openings are still visible in the ruins of the gas chamb
ers.  The plans even include the shower heads that were placed in the gas chamber to mislead the victims.
\par \pard 
\par \pard It is a sad reflection 
on Leuchter's integrity and ability to use logic to see that he admits the Kremas were demolished, yet continues to claim he can deduce from their current state how they looked in 1944, before they were blown up!  The following is a verbatim excerpt from 
his cross-examination by Mr.  Pearson, in the Zuendel trial:
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 Q. Crematoria III has been demolished.
\par 
\par \pard \li720 A. Um, there are still parts of Crematoruim III there, but for the most part, the roof of the alleged gas chamber has crumbled and is all lying in bits and pieces in the basement of what would have been the alleged gas chamber.
\par \pard \li720 
\par Q. So, it's no longer subterranean?
\par 
\par A. That's correct. There's a hole in the ground.
\par 
\par \pard \li720 Q. With respect to the gas chambers at Crematorium IV and V, those are totally demolished.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 A. With the exception of the foundation, yes.
\par 
\par \pard \li720 Q. So, all that was there for you to examine was the foundation of the building.  Is that right?
\par \pard \li720 
\par A. That is correct.
\par 
\par \pard Leuchter admits that the roof of the gas chamber of Krema III was all blown up and collapsed, and that Krema IV and V are gone except for the foundation!  As for Krema II, his testimony is also intriguing:
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 Q. So, the gas chamber facility itself is presently underground?
\par 
\par A. Parts of it are and parts aren't.
\par 
\par \pard \li720 Q. All right.  And the parts that are underground, I take it that the roof is no longer whole; is that right?
\par \pard \li720 
\par A. Um, one of the roofs is broken into several pieces but it's essentially whole.
\par 
\par Q. It's broken in several pieces but it's essentially whole?
\par 
\par A. I mean it's not fragmented.
\par 
\par Q. How many pieces?
\par 
\par \pard \li720 A. Three, I believe. I say that only to indicate that it's not fragmented. There are large slabs left of the roof.
\par \pard \li720 
\par Q. Right. And it's collapsed.
\par 
\par A. It's dropped several feet. It's partially collapsed.
\par 
\par Q. Is there dirt over it? Is it subterranean?
\par 
\par A. In some places there are dirt over it and some places there's no dirt.
\par 
\par Q. All right. And that's with respect to Crematorium II?
\par 
\par A. That's correct.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Even more incredible is to see what Leuchter writes in his report:
\par 
\par \pard \li720 "Evidence as to Krema function is non-existent since Krema's I oven has been completely rebuilt, Kremas II and III are partially destroyed with components missing, and Kremas IV and V are gone".
\par \pard 
\par \pard "Are gone"!  Yet, he can still conjecture about how they functioned before being destroyed...
\par 
\par \pard The pictures of the gas chambers in their current state appear in Pressac.  They are totally demolished and there is no way a reasonable person would claim to be able to conclude anything about how they functioned before they were destroyed.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Leu
chter further ridicules himself by stating that the gas chambers were never sealed and that using cyanide gas inside them would be dangerous. But, he admits that the gas was used in them (for delousing purposes, as he claims). This is absurd, of course; i
f they were not  sealed, introducing the gas into them would be dangerous no matter what the purpose was. This obvious contradiction alone is reason enough to discard the "Leuchter report".
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683029}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.9\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 If the gas chambers were ventilated, the gas would kill people outside.{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683029}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 
Nonsense; it is all a question of concentration.  Once the gas is released into the atmosphere, its concentration drops and it is no longer dangerous.  Also, HCN dissipates quickly.  The execution gas chambers in US prisons are also ventilated directly in
to the atmosphere.  Furthermore, if this argument would hold for the extermination chambers, it would hold for the delousing chambers as well, and one would have to conclude that no delousing chambers existed either.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683030}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.10\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 If so many people were actually killed and cremated, where is all the ash?{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683030}

\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 
After a person is cremated, quite a small amount of ash remains - it fits in a small urn, or a box.  This means that ashes of thousands of people fit into one truck.  The ash was either scattered around in fields, buried, or - in Auschwitz, for instance -
 dumped into a river.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683031}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.11\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 The people who dropped the Zyklon-B into the chambers would have died from the gas themselves.
{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683031}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Utter nonsense.  Like those who used the Zyklon-B in the delousing chambers, the SS men who carried out the gassings utilized gas masks. (The mind boggles at the realization that a "gas chamber expert" could not figure this out.)

\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683032}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.12\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 
The death lists from Auschwitz do not show that any people were gassed, and point to a smaller number of victims.{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683032}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 
This is because those lists refer only to those who where assigned serial numbers.  The majority of people transferred to the camp were classified as "unfit for work" and gassed immediately.  This fact is noted, for instance, in a report written by top SS
 officer Fran
ke-Gricksch to Himmler (Get pub/camps/auschwitz/gricksch.rpt; & ~/auschwitz.faq1, which discusses the registration process).  These people were not registered anywhere, and no one recorded their names. (Testimony of Polish prisoner Aloiz Oskar Kleta, {\i 
Shelly}, p.  284; {\i Fertig}, 12; {\i Fleming}, 174.  Also, see testimony of Henryk Tauber, {\i Pressac}, page 488, as to how the SS routinely burned documents regarding the number of victims.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683033}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.13\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 There was a swimming pool in Auschwitz, hence it could not have been an extermination camp.
{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683033}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 
\par \pard 
Indeed, a water reservoir in Auschwitz I (the main camp) was converted to a swimming pool which was used by the camp's staff. Other means of entertainment for the SS personnel existed - a band composed of prisoners, and a brothel.  How this "proves" that 
Auschwitz was not an extermination center is beyond the author of this text.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683034}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.14\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Much of the area of Auschwitz has a high water table, therefore corpses could not be burned in ditches.
{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683034}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 There are pictures of these ditches with corpses burning in them. 
During the period in which Auschwitz was active, the SS had the area drained; as can be seen today, the drainage, which has not been maintained since 1945, has deteriorated and the water level had risen.  Furthermore, the ditches were not used all the tim
e, but only when there were not enough furnaces to cremate the victims or during the extermination of the Hungarian Jews, when so many people were murdered daily that the furnaces could not handle the amount of corpses.  The "incineration ditches" are kno
wn to have been active in October-November 1942 and the summer of 1944, which do not coincide with the period the snow melts and the water level rises.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683035}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.15\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 How come eye witnesses to the gassings survived? Why didn't the Nazis kill them?
{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683035}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 
The answer is rather simple - the SS did kill almost all of them. After the war, for instance, there were about 70 survivors from Treblinka (more than 700,000 victims, see also file with excerpts from ruling of German courts - get pub/camps/aktion.reinhar
d/reinhard.faq1 and ~/rein
hard.faq2).  These survivors escaped from the camp, mostly during the rebellion they carried out.  Same for Auschwitz: nearly all the members of the "Special Commando" who saw the gassings and had to carry out and cremate the victims, were killed by the S
S, but a small number of them escaped, mostly during the rebellion of October 1944.  Another factor is the fact that in the end of the war Auschwitz was in total chaos - the Soviets were approaching fast, and they even bombed the camp.  Thus there was no 
time to kill all the occupants, and some were transferred to camps within Germany.  Many of them died in those forced "death marches".
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683036}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.16\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Fumes from a diesel engine are not toxic enough to kill people.{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683036}  
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 {\i 
(This claim is made with regard to the death camp of Treblinka - see file with ruling of German courts on this.  In other death camps, gasoline engines were used. The method of killing was simple - people were crammed into the gas chambers, and the exhaus
t of powerful engines was pumped into them).
\par }\pard {\i 
\par }\pard Nonsense.  I
n a closed chamber, of course diesel fumes will kill. There was actually a study on this, and its results are reported in "The Toxicity of Fumes from a diesel Engine Under Four Different Running Conditions", by Pattle et al., British Journal of Industrial
 Medicine, 1957, Vol 14, p.  47-55.  These researchers ran a few experiments in which various animals were exposed to diesel fumes, and studied the results.
\par \pard 
\par \pard In the experiments, the exhaust of a small diesel engine (568 cc, 6 BHP) was connected to a chamber
 10 cubic meters (340 cubic feet) in volume, and the animals were put inside it.  In all cases, the animals died.  Death was swifter when the intake of air to the engine was restricted, as this causes a large increase in the amount of carbon monoxide (CO)
 that is emitted.  (See, for instance, "{\i diesel Engine Reference Book}
", by Lilly, 1985, p.  18/8, where it is stated that at a high air/fuel ratio the concentration of CO is only a few parts per million but for lower ratios (25:1) the concentration of CO can
 rise up to 3,000 ppm.  It is very easy to restrict the air intake - the British researchers did so by partially covering the air intake opening with a piece of metal.)
\par \pard 
\par \pard Even in cases where the CO output was low, the animals still died from other toxic components - mainly irritants and nitrogen dioxide.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Now, the diesel engines used in Treblinka were much larger - they belonged to captured Soviet T-34 tanks.  These tanks weighed 26-31 tons (depending on the model) and had a 500 BHP engine (compared to a mer
e 6 BHP in the British experiments).  The volume of the extermination chambers in Treblinka is, of course, a factor.  But the chambers' volume was about 60 cubic meters (2040 cubic feet); this is 6 times more than those in the British experiments, but the
 difference in the size of the engines is much larger than a factor of 6.
\par \pard 
\par \pard It should be remembered that what matters in CO poisoning is not the concentration of CO, but the ratio of CO to oxygen.  In a small, gas-tight room, crammed full of people, oxygen l
evels drop quickly, thus making death by CO poisoning faster.  As noted, other toxic components in the fumes further accelerate mortality.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
The SS was aware of the fact that cramming as many people as possible into the gas chamber, thus leaving no empty spaces, would accelerate mortality.  This is evident, for instance, from a letter regarding "gassing vans" (used in the Chelmno extermination
 camp and other locations) sent to SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer Walter Rauff, 5 June 1942. The letter is quite long (more of it is reproduced in the file of original Nazi documents), but here is the relevant part ({\i Nazism}, document 913).
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 
"2) The vans are normally loaded with 9-10 people per square meter. With the large Saurer special vans this is not possible because although they do not become overloaded their maneuverability is much impaired.  A reduction in the load area appears desira
ble.  It can be achieved by reducing the size of the van by c.  1 meter.  The difficulty referred to cannot be overcome by reducing the size 
of the load.  For a reduction in the numbers will necessitate longer period of operation because the free spaces will have to be filled with CO. By contrast, a smaller load area which is completely full requires a much shorter period of operation since th
ere are no free spaces."
\par \pard 
\par \pard Another gruesome testimony to the "science of gassing" developed by the SS is the letter from Dr August Becker to SS-Obersturmbannfuehrer Rauff, 16 May 1942 ({\i Nazi Conspiracy}, 418)
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 The application of the gas is not undertaken corre
ctly.  In order to come to an end as fast as possible, the driver presses the accelerator to the fullest extent.  By doing that the persons to be executed suffer death from suffocation and not death by dozing off as was planned.  My directions have now pr
oved that by correct adjustment of the levers death comes faster and the prisoners fall asleep peacefully.  Distorted faces and excretions, such as could be seen before, are no longer noticed.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Additional information was published to several UseNet newsgrou
ps in November of 1993, in which smullins@ecn.purdue.edu quotes Holtz (see Recommended Reading section) and Elliot.  A quick scan of the data clearly shows the difference in oxygen and carbon monoxide levels found in diesel exhaust under different fuel-ai
r mixture conditions:
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 Exhaust gas composition of a diesel engine, running at the correct fuel-air ratios (% by volume):
\par \pard \li720 
\par O2: \tab \tab 1.5% 
\par CO2: \tab \tab 13.5% 
\par CO: \tab \tab 0.5% 
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 Exhaust gas composition of a diesel engine running at a fuel-air ratio of 0.094 (% by volume):
\par \pard \li720 
\par O2:\tab \tab 0.3%
\par CO2:\tab \tab 10.2%
\par CO:\tab \tab 6.0%
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
The data clearly demonstrates that simply restricting the air intake of the engine, any diesel engine will produce sufficient CO to be clearly and rapidly fatal (6% CO represents roughly 60,000 ppm). This data (Holtz & Elliot) appeared in "Transactions of
 the ASME" in early 1941, and was probably known to the Nazis.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Mr. Mullins has also published an article to UseNet which deals with Berg's "The Diesel Gas Chambers: Myth Within a Myth," ({\ul Get pub/orgs/american/ihr/jhr/jhr.v5n1}
), and which demonstrates not only how diesel engines can quickly produce highly toxic levels of gasses,  but which uses Berg's own references to do so. ({\ul Get pub/orgs/american/ihr/diesel.001} for the full article.)
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683037}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.17\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 There were not enough Jews in Europe to account for the number of 6 million victims
{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683037}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 {\i This claim is ridiculous, as attested to by all population statistics of that time, including the numbers of Jews appearing in many original Nazi documents...  for instance:
\par }\pard 
\par \pard Extracts from the minutes of the Wannsee conference, January 20 1942, regarding the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question" [{\i Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals}
 - Washington, U.S Govt.  Print.  Off., 1949-1953., Vol.  XIII, p.  210]
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 
II.  At the beginning of the meeting the Chief of the Security Police and the SD, SS Lieutenant General Heydrich, reported his appointment by the Reich Marshal [Goering] to service as Commissioner for the preparation of the Final Solution of the European 
Jewish Problem....
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 In the course of this final solution of the European Jewish Problem, approximately 11 million Jews are involved.  They are distributed among individual countries as follows:
\par \pard \li720 
\par \trowd \trgaph108\trleft720 \cellx4652\cellx8100 \pard \intbl Original Reich Territory [Altreich]\cell \pard \qr\intbl 131,800\cell \pard \intbl \row \trowd \trgaph108\trleft720 \cellx4652\cellx8100 \pard \intbl Austria\cell \pard \qr\intbl 43,700\cell 
\pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Eastern territories\cell \pard \qr\intbl 420,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Government General [Nazi occupied Poland]\cell \pard \qr\intbl 2,284,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl The Netherlands\cell \pard 
\qr\intbl 160,800\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Rumania, including Bessarabia\cell \pard \qr\intbl 342,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Hungary\cell \pard \qr\intbl 742,800\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl USSR\cell \pard \qr\intbl 
5,000,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl White Russia, excluding Bialystok\cell \pard \qr\intbl 446,484\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \qr\intbl \cell \pard \qr\intbl \cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl [Many countries deleted for brevity]\cell \pard 
\qr\intbl \cell \pard \intbl \row \trowd \trgaph108\trleft720 \cellx4652\cellx8100 \pard \intbl TOTAL\cell \pard \qr\intbl over 11,000,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 
Under proper direction the Jews should now in the course of the Final Solution be brought to the East in a suitable way for use as labor.  In big labor gangs, with separation of the sexes, the Jews capable of work are brought to these areas and employed i
n road building, in which task undoubtedly a great part will fall out through natural diminution.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 The remnant that finally is able to survive all this - since this is undoubtedly the part with the strongest resistance - must be treated accordingly since th
ese people, representing a natural selection, are to be regarded as the germ cell of a new Jewish development.  (See the experience of history).
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 In the program of the practical execution of the Final Solution, Europe is combed through from the West to the East.
\par \pard 
\par \pard The claims often made by Holocaust deniers about emigration of Jews after the war are preposterous.  For instance, there were 370,000 Jews in Palestine in 1937, and 600,000 in 1948.  The numbers arrived at by the Anglo-American committee for studyi
ng the Holocaust are the following:
\par \pard 
\par \pard (Conclusions of the Anglo-American committee for studying the Nazi genocide inflicted on the Jews of Europe, with exact breakdown, country by country.)
\par \pard 
\par \trowd \trgaph108\trleft1800 \cellx5076\cellx6480 \pard \intbl Numbers of missing Jews (post-war minus pre-war):
\par \pard \intbl \cell \pard \intbl \cell \pard \intbl \row \trowd \trgaph108\trleft1800 \cellx5076\cellx6480 \pard \intbl Germany\cell \pard \qr\intbl 195,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Austria\cell \pard \qr\intbl 53,000\cell \pard \intbl \row 
\pard \intbl Czechoslovakia\cell \pard \qr\intbl 255,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Denmark\cell \pard \qr\intbl 1,500\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl France\cell \pard \qr\intbl 140,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Belgium\cell \pard 
\qr\intbl 57,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Luxemburg\cell \pard \qr\intbl 3,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Norway\cell \pard \qr\intbl 1,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Holland\cell \pard \qr\intbl 120,000\cell \pard \intbl 
\row \pard \intbl Italy\cell \pard \qr\intbl 20,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Jugoslavia\cell \pard \qr\intbl 64,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Greece\cell \pard \qr\intbl 64,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Bulgaria\cell \pard 
\qr\intbl 5,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Rumania\cell \pard \qr\intbl 530,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Hungary\cell \pard \qr\intbl 200,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Poland\cell \pard \qr\intbl 3,271,000\cell \pard \intbl 
\row \pard \intbl USSR\cell \pard \qr\intbl 1,050,000\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard \intbl Less dispersed refugees (\cell \pard \qr\intbl (308,000)\cell \pard \intbl \row \trowd \trgaph108\trleft1800 \cellx5076\cellx6480 \pard \intbl 
Total number of Jews that were exterminated\cell \pard \qr\intbl 5,721,500\cell \pard \intbl \row \pard 
\par \pard 
Some estimates are lower, and some are higher, but these are the magnitudes in question.  Recent evidence shows that the number of ex-USSR victims was actually underestimated.  About 6 million non-Jewish civilians were killed by the Nazis - mostly in Pola
nd and Yugoslavia.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683038}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 2.18\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 The "myth" of the Holocaust was created solely for the financial benefit of Israel
{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683038}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Holocaust denial often asserts that the sole re
ason that the "Holocaust hoax" has been promulgated was that it created a financial windfall for the State of Israel. Deborah Lipstadt provides this information in "Denying the Holocaust": 
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
"Israeli officials detailed their claims against Germany in their communique of March 1951 to the Four Powers, and this document became the official basis for the reparations agreement. It contained an explanation of Israel's means of calculating the size
 of the reparations claim. In the communique Israeli officials exp
lained that Nazi persecution had stimulated 'a second Jewish exodus' of close to five hundred thousand. Based on the size of this exodus, Israel determined the amount of the reparations it would request:
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 \ldblquote 
The government of Israel is not in a position to obtain and present a complete statement of all Jewish property taken or looted by the Germans, and said to total more than $6 thousand million.  It can only compute its claim on the basis of total expendit
ures already made and the expenditure still needed for the integration of Jewish immigrants from Nazi-dominated countries.  The number of these immigrants is estimated at some 500,000, which means a total expenditure of $1.5 thousand million. 
\par \pard 
\par \pard \ldblquote It seems hardly necessary to point out that since the money the state received by based on the cost of resettling {\i survivors}
, had Israel wanted to increase the amount of reparations it obtained from Germany it would have been in its interest to argue that fewer than six million had been killed and that more had managed to flee to Israel." ({\i Lipstad}t, 57)
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683039}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\f5\fs28\kerning28 3.\tab}\pard\plain \s1\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl1\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxta .}}\b\f5\fs28\kerning28 Leuchter's "credibility," or rather, his lack of same.
{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683039}
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683040}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 3.1\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Leuchter\rquote s perjury in Canadian Court{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683040}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 
\par \pard \li720 {\i 
Leuchter's claims during his Zuendel testimony, and the reality of his perjury, Leuchter's admission that he is not an engineer  (in American court), court order to quit publishing "reports"  which claim engineering expertise.. (For an extensive examinati
on of Leuchter's reception as an "expert witness" in a Canadian court, get pub/people/l/lipstadt.deborah/lipstadt.005. For the 
 Washington Post article discussing the Leuchter Consent Decree,  in which he admitted that he was not an engineer, and agreed to stop disseminating 'reports' which identified him as such, }{\i\ul get} {\ul pub/people/l/leuchter.fred/washington-post.0691}
.)
\par \pard 
\par \pard In his article of January 11, ({\i Spotlight}, "Major Historical Fact Uncovered," January 11, 1993), Foner discusses the Canadian trial of Ernst Zuendel, and tells us...
\par \pard 
\par \pard Zuendel went looking for an expert on executions, particularly gassings.  He found Leuchter, who specializes in the design and fabrication of execution hardware used in prisons throughout the United States.  ({\i Foner}, 3)
\par \pard 
\par \pard Although Leuchter is touted by Neo-Nazi publications and Holocaust deniers as an "expert," Mr.  Leuchter's own testimony at the Zuendel trial made it clear that he was neither an expert nor a credible witness.
\par \pard 
\par \pard The following is taken from Leuchter's testimony at the Zuendel trial (Douglas Christie, Zuendel's attorney is the questioner) - following the testimony are verbatim quotes from two A
merican prison officials, which were obtained after Leuchter's testimony at the trial.  We believe you will have no difficulty in determining the value of Mr. Leuchter's credentials after considering both:
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 Q: And what is your relationship with the operation of those facilities [i.e.  gas chambers] in those two States [California and North Carolina]?
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 A: We consulted with both States, California primarily on a heart monitoring system to replace the older type mechanical diagraph stethoscope that's presently
 in use.  We will be shipping to them shortly and installing a new heart monitor for both chairs in their gas chamber.
\par \pard \li720 
\par Q: You are consulted by the State, I understand?
\par 
\par A: Yes, Juan Vasquez.
\par 
\par Q: I see.  And in North Carolina?
\par 
\par \pard \li720 
A: North Carolina.  My discussions and work was with one Nathan Reise, and he had some work done by their maintenance personnel on their gas chamber two years ago, and they had a problem with the gasket on a door leaking.  At which point, we discussed it 
with him and recommended remedial procedures to change the gas chamber.
\par \pard \li720 
\par Q: And he consults you in regard to those matters?
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 A: He does.
\par \pard 
\par \pard What do those two facilities have to say about the matter?  First, the warden at San Quentin (California) responds:
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 "I can inform you, however, that San Quentin has not contracted with Fred A.  Leuchter, Jr.  for the installation of a heart monitoring system or for any other work." Signed: DANIEL B. Vasquez, Warden (California)
\par \pard 
\par \pard Next, we offer the comments from North Carolina prison officials:
\par 
\par \pard \li720 "I d
iscussed your request with Mr.  Nathan A.  RICE, Former Warden, and he stated that he vaguely recalled a telephone conversation between him and a gentleman professing to be an expert on execution chambers.  Mr.  Rice further states that the gentleman call
ed him for the purpose of selling a lethal injection machine...
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 Also, our records do not support that Mr.  Leuchter performed either consulting or any service...I can attest that the planning and work was performed by the Department of Correction Engineeri
ng Section and our institution maintenance department." Signed: Gary T.  Dixon, Warden (North Carolina)
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
We discover, then, that neither California nor North Carolina have consulted with Leuchter regarding their gas chambers.  Leuchter was incapable of even getting the names of the wardens right, and clearly lying about his "professional" relationships with 
them.
\par \pard 
\par \pard The only other state with which Leuchter has alleged consulted regarding gas chambers is Missouri.  Yet, even thought Leuchter has allegedly "des
igned" a gas chamber for the state, we have to take his word for it since that gas chamber was never built nor installed and, in fact, Missouri does not have an operational gas chamber to this day even though Leuchter had allegedly designed one for them o
ver 4 years ago.  We would like to hear from anyone who has contacted authorities in the State of Missouri regarding this matter.
\par \pard 
\par \pard An article in the Washington Post sheds additional light upon Leuchter's legal problems, and his status as an engineer:
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 BOSTO
N, June 17 - Fred A.  Leuchter Jr., a self-styled expert in the machinery of death who parlayed his reputation as a builder of killing equipment into a second career as a proponent of "Holocaust revisionism," has admitted that he is not an engineer.

\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 
Made in a consent decree filed with a Massachusetts court last week, his admission should deal a blow to the movement holding that the Nazi extermination of 6 million Jews and others during World War II was a hoax or an exaggeration, according to experts 
in the field.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 
Leuchter, 48, of suburban Malden, was to face trial later this month on charges of practicing engineering without a license, a violation of Massachusetts law.  But on June 11, he signed a consent agreement with the board that licenses engineers.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 
In it, Leuchter acknowledged that, "I am not and have never been registered as a professional engineer" and that he nevertheless had represented himself as an engineer in dealings with various states that use the death penalty and to which he supplied equ
ipment or advice.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 
The agreement also requires Leuchter to stop disseminating reports in which he purports to be an engineer, most significantly a document known as the "Leuchter Report." That report, widely circulated by revisionists, asserts that gas chambers at Nazi conc
entration camps in Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek could not have been used for mass killings because they were not big enough nor well ventilated or sealed.  The assertion is based largely on chemical analysis of materials scraped surrep
titiously from walls of those chambers by Leuchter during a visit to Poland in February 1988.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 Sally Greenberg, an attorney with the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith in Boston, which was instrumental in bringing Leuchter to the attention of Massachusetts authorities, welcomed the settlement.
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard \li720 "It's a blow to Holocaust revisionism because he has been the guru of the revisionists," she said.  "Now, he has as much as admitted that he is not qualified as an engineer to comment on the 'myth' of the Holocau
st.  It's essentially an admission that he's the charlatan and phony that we always knew he was." ("Holocaust Revisionist Admits He Is Not Engineer." The Washington Post. Get pub/people/l/leuchter.fred/leuchter.02 for  the complete text.)
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683041}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 3.2\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Leuchter's "credibility," or rather, his lack of same, among American prison administrators
{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683041}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 
\par \pard \li720 On July 20,1990, Alabama Assistant Attorney General Ed Carnes sent a memo to all capital-punishment states questioning Leuchter's credentials and credibility.  Carnes stated that n
ot only were Leuchter's views on the gas-chamber process 'unorthodox' but that he was running a shakedown scheme.  If a state refused to use his services, Leuchter would testify at the last minute on behalf of the inmate, claiming that the state's gas cha
mber might malfunction.   Accordin
g 
to Carnes, Leuchter made 'money on both sides of the fence.' .  Describing Leuchter's behavior in Virginia, Florida, and Alabama, Carnes observed that in less than thirty days Leuchter had testified in three states that
 their electric-chair technology was too old and unreliable to be used.  In Florida and Virginia the federal courts had rejected Leuchter's testimony as unreliable.  In Florida the court had found that Leuchter had 'misquoted the statements' contained in 
an
 important affidavit and had 'inaccurately surmised' a crucial premise of his conclusion .  In Virginia, Leuchter provided a death-row inmate's attorney with an affidavit claiming the electric chair would fail.  The Virginia court deci
ded the credibility of Leuchter's affidavit was limited because Leuchter was "the refused contractor who bid to replace the electrodes in the Virginia chair ." ({\i Lipstadt}, 170)
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683042}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\f5\fs28\kerning28 4.\tab}\pard\plain \s1\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl1\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 {\pntxta .}}\b\f5\fs28\kerning28 Research Materials & Sources{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683042}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Vera Laska provided an
 extensive list of assets for those interested in Holocaust research, which was included in the Auschwitz FAQ.  I recommend it as an excellent starting point for anyone wishing to do serious research into the Reinhard camps.  ({\ul 
Get pub/camps/auschwitz/auschwitz.faq2})
\par \pard 
\par \pard In addition, you may obtain our 25-part Holocaust bibliography by using the Nizkor Web, {\b http://www.nizkor.org}. You'll find them in pub/bibliographies.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683043}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 4.1\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Recommended Reading{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683043}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 A German language version of this FAQ is now available at URL {\b http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?people/l/leuchter.fred/leuchter.faq.de}.
\par \pard 
\par \pard 
For those wishing to learn more about the extermination facilities at Auschwitz-Birkenau, we suggest that you begin with our two-part Guide, by reading AUSCHWITZ AUSCHWITZ.FAQ1 and AUSCHWITZ.FAQ2, which contains a comprehensive list of sources. The Auschw
itz FAQs are available on the World Wide Web at URL {\b http://www.nizkor.org/faqs/auschwitz/}
\par \pard 
\par \pard "Cyanide Toxicity".  Agency for Toxic Substances and  Disease Registry, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services.    in {\i American Family Physician}, Vol. 48, no 1, July 1993.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Elkins, Hervey B. {\i The Chemistry of Toxicology}.  New York: John  Wiley and Sons Ltd. 2nd (c) 1959
\par \pard 
\par \pard Two recent (September, 1995) articles in UseNet's alt.revisionism provide extensive documentation regarding spurious claims made by deniers. These articles, by  Brian Harmon, may be retrieved as:
\par \pard 
\par \pard {\b http://ftp.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?camps/auschwitz/cyanide/hcn-spurious-claims}
\par \pard 
\par \pard Mr. Harmon's articles provide specific citations from the two references to cyanide toxicology noted above.
\par \pard 
\par \pard Markiewicz, Jan, et. al. A Study of the Cyanide Compounds Content in the Walls of the Gas Chambers in the Former Auschwitz and Birkenau Concentration Camps. Cracow: Institute of Forensic Research, 1994.  
\par \pard ({\b http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/orgs/polish/institute-for-forensic-research/index.html})
\par \pard 
\par \pard Meeussen, Johannes C. et. al. "Dissolution Behavior of Iron Cyanide (Prussian Blue) in Contaminated Soils." {\i Environmental Science and  Technology}. 1992, 26, pp 1832-1838
\par \pard 
\par \pard Reitlinger, Gerald. {\i The Final Solution:  The Attempt to  Exterminate the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945}.  (South  Brunswick, New Jersey) c 1961.
\par \pard 
\par \pard {\i Truth Prevails: Demolishing Holocaust Denial}, published by the Beate Klarsfeld foundation and Holocaust Survivors and Friends.  ISBN 1-879437-00-7.
\par \pard 
\par \pard {\i Denying the Holocaust.} Deborah Lipstadt provides extensive discussion relating to Leuchter's lack of expertise or credentials - see Work Cited.         
\par \pard 
\par \pard The Holocaust archives are available via anonymous ftp, from ftp.nizkor.org, and via t
he World Wide Web, at www.nizkor.org.  Because of the ease with which Web browsers retrieve software, reaching the archives via the Web is the preferred means of access.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683044}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 4.2\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Abbreviations Used in Citations{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683044}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 (For a list of abbreviations which may have been used in this document, {\ul Get pub/camps/auschwitz/reference.term}.)
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683045}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 4.3\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Glossary{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683045}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 {\b Krema:} a unit containing a homicidal gas chamber and furnaces for disposing of the bodies.  Auschwitz had five such installations.
\par {\*\bkmkstart _Toc362683046}{\pntext\pard\plain\b\i\f5 4.4\tab}\pard\plain \s2\sb240\sa60\keepn{\*\pn \pnlvl2\pndec\pnprev1\pnstart1\pnsp144 }\b\i\f5 Works Cited{\*\bkmkend _Toc362683046}
\par \pard\plain \f5\fs20 Borkin, Joseph. The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farbin. London &  New York: Collier Macmillan Publishers (London) and The Free Press, a division of Macmillan Publishing, 1978.
\par \pard  
\par \pard Brugioni, Dino A., and Robert G.  Poirier.  The Holocaust Revisited: A Retrospective Analysis of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Complex.  (Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C.) February 1979.
\par \pard 
\par \pard \li720 The paper includes aerial photographs of the Auschwitz-Birkenau complex in operation during WWII.  A summary of their analysis is included in the paper.  These photos corroborate eyewitness accounts/Nazi documentation on camp operations.

\par \pard \li720 
\par You can obtain a copy from the US gov't through the following sources:
\par 
\par National Technical Information Service
\par 5285 Port Royal Road
\par Springfield, VA 22161
\par 
\par or:
\par 
\par Photoduplication Service
\par Library of Congress
\par Washington, D.C. 20540
\par \pard \li720 
\par \pard Use the report number(#st 79-10001) and the document number (NTISUBE28002) to speed service along.  The document # is particularly important.
\par \pard 
\par Feig, Konnilyn G. Hitler's Death Camps. LOC D810.J4 F36, 1981
\par 
\par \pard Foner, Samuel P.  "Major Historical Fact Uncovered" SPOTLIGHT Vol. XIX, Number 2, January 11, 1993)
\par \pard 
\par Hilberg, Raul.  Commandant of Auschwitz (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1959)
\par 
\par Klarsfeld, Serge.  The Holocaust and Neo-Nazi Mythomania, as quoted in Feig.
\par 
\par \pard Shelly, "Secretaries of Death", Edited and Translated by Lore Shelly, Shengold Publishers INC., NY 1986
\par \pard 
\par Fertig, Howard.  The History of KL-Auschwitz.  New York: 1982
\par 
\par Fleming, Gerald.  Hitler and the Final Solution.  University of California Press, 1984
\par 
\par \pard Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying The Holocaust. New York: Macmillan, 1993. Toronto: Maxwell MacMillan Canada. ISBN: 0-02-919235-8
\par \pard 
\par Merck Index. Ninth Edition, 1976.
\par 
\par \pard Mu"ller, Filip.  "Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chambers", as cited by both Feig and Hilberg.  Museum w Oswiecimu. "KL Auschwitz seen by the SS Hoess, Broad, Kremer," 2nd.  ed., 1978
\par \pard 
\par \pard Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Vol. III. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946
\par \pard 
\par Nazism: A History in Documents and Eye Witness Accounts, Vol.2
\par 
\par \pard Pressac, J.C.  Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chambers.  New York: Beate Klarsfeld Foundation, 1989
\par \pard 
\par \pard "Holocaust Revisionist Admits He Is Not Engineer." The Washington Post, June 18, 1991, FINAL Edition. Christopher B. Daly
\par \pard 
\par \pard YVS XVI. Yad Vashem Studies, XVI. "Operation Reinhard":  Extermination Camps of Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka.  Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 1984
\par }

Home ·  Site Map ·  What's New? ·  Search Nizkor

© The Nizkor Project, 1991-2012

This site is intended for educational purposes to teach about the Holocaust and to combat hatred. Any statements or excerpts found on this site are for educational purposes only.

As part of these educational purposes, Nizkor may include on this website materials, such as excerpts from the writings of racists and antisemites. Far from approving these writings, Nizkor condemns them and provides them so that its readers can learn the nature and extent of hate and antisemitic discourse. Nizkor urges the readers of these pages to condemn racist and hate speech in all of its forms and manifestations.