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Shofar FTP Archive File: camps/aktion.reinhard/co-abstracts

I am enclosing a number of abstracts referring to CO poisoning for your files:


Title: Should coroners be able to recognize unintentional carbon
monoxide-related deaths immediately at the death scene?

Source: J Forensic Sci; VOL 40, ISS 4, 1995, P596-8

Title Abbreviation: J Forensic Sci

Author: Risser D; Bjonsch A;

Mesh Headings: Adolescence*; Adult*; Age Distribution*; Aged*; Aged,
80 and over*; Austria; Carbon Monoxide Poisoning*; Child*; Coroners
and Medical Examiners*; Female; Human; Male; Middle Age*; Postmortem

Abstract: The aim of this retrospective survey of unintentional carbon
monoxide-related deaths in Vienna was to determine whether the
cherry-pink coloring of livor mortis is a reliable finding for the
coroner to suspect a carbon monoxide-related death immediately at the
death scene. In addition, we investigated the recognition pattern of
unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths by Viennese coroners
between 1984 and 1993. Therefore, we analyzed autopsy reports of
postmortems performed at the Viennese Institute of Forensic Medicine
between 1984 and 1993. The study involved 182 unintentional carbon
monoxide-related deaths: 92 females and 90 males. We found a strong
association between the carboxyhemoglobin level and the cherry-pink
coloring of livor mortis. In 98.4% of unintentional carbon
monoxide-related deaths livor mortis were clearly cherry-pink. During
the 10-year study period Viennese coroners recognized only 61% of
unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths immediately at the death
scene. The percentage of unrecognized carbon monoxide fatalities with
a clear cherry-pink coloring of livor mortis almost doubled from 1984
to 1993. The older the victim, the worse the coroners recognition. In
summary, we have shown that coroners should be able to recognize
unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths immediately at the
death-scene, because fresh corpses with carboxyhemoglobin levels
greater than 31% show a clear cherry-pink coloring of livor mortis.
Therefore, coroners should be encouraged to examine naked corpses
thoroughly, especially regarding the color of livor mortis. Thus, a
carbon monoxide-related death can be recognized immediately and the
source of gas release identified as soon as possible protecting people
who otherwise would also be at risk of poisoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED

Publication Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE

Entry Month: 9602

Secondary Source ID: TOXBIB/96/078551

Year: 95

Coden: I5Z

Address: Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Vienna,

ISSN: 0022-1198


Title: Carbon Monoxide. Chapter 3: Modeling the Uptake and Elimination
of Carbon Monoxide.

Source: Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 21, 1996


Abstract: TD3: Carbon monoxide (CO) has received a considerable amount
of attention because of its potentially lethal consequences in
relatively small doses, coupled with the fact that human senses cannot
detect CO. The dangers are exacerbated by the occurrence of symptoms
that are so nonspecific as to be ignored or to cause delay in
treatment. It is desirable, therefore, to have the capability of
predicting CO uptake and elimination for preparedness in the event of
an exposure, whether planned or accidental. One means of achieving
this capability is through the development of mathematical models.
Ideally, the model should take into account not only the level of CO
exposure, but also the subject's physiological characteristics and
level of activity. This chapter will explore the most successful model
to date. This will be followed by guidelines for its use in certain

Entry Month: 9610

Secondary Source ID: NTIS/AD-A310 116/9

Year: 96

Address: Defence and Civil Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Downsview

Keywords: Carbon monoxide, Mathematical models, Signs and symptoms,
Dosage, Elimination, Reprints


Order Number: NTIS/AD-A310 116/9, Availability: Pub. in Carbon
Monoxide, p45-67, 1996., 26p

Price: NTIS Prices: PC A03/MF A01


Title: Deaths caused by carbon monoxide poisoning in an open
environment (outdoors).

Source: J Forensic Sci; VOL 32, ISS 6, 1987, P1794-5

Title Abbreviation: J Forensic Sci

Author: DiMaio VJ;

Mesh Headings: Adult*; Carbon Monoxide Poisoning*; Case Report; Human;
Male; Suicide*;

Abstract: Three deaths as a result of inhalation of carbon monoxide
from the exhaust fumes of automobiles are reported. All deaths
occurred outside and not in a structure. The individuals were white
males, ages 24 to 26 years. Blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations
ranged from 58 (in a decomposing body) to 81%. The three cases
illustrate the fact that even in the outdoors death from carbon
monoxide inhalation can occur if an individual is in close proximity
to a rich source of carbon monoxide.

Publication Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE

Entry Month: 8805

Language: Eng

Cas Registry Number: 0 (Vehicle Emissions)

Secondary Source ID: TOXBIB/88/117385

Year: 87

Coden: I5Z

Address: Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office, San Antonio, TX.

ISSN: 0022-1198


Title: Inhalation Toxicology. 11. The Effect of Elevated Temperature
on Carbon Monoxide Toxicity.

Source: Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 13, 1991

Author: Sanders DC;

Abstract: TD3: Laboratory rats were exposed (a) to experimental
concentrations of carbon monoxide in air at ambient temperature, (b)
to elevated temperature atmospheres from 40 deg C to 60 deg C, and (c)
to selected carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations at the elevated
temperatures in (b). The incapacitating potency of each of the
environments was evaluated by measurements of time-to-incapacitation
(t sub i) as a function of CO concentration and/or temperature;
incapacitation was defined operationally as loss of ability to walk
inside a motor-driven, rotating cage enclosed in an exposure chamber.
Comparison of data from the combined (CO + elevated temperature)
exposures and exposures to CO and elevated temperatures alone
indicated than incapacitation occurred earlier when CO inhalation was
combined with a whole-body, elevated temperature environment than was
observed for the same exposure parameters applied individually. No
evidence for a synergistic effect was noted. An empirical equation was
derived that allows the calculation of a predicted t sub i for
combinations of CO and temperature within the rangers utilized in the
experimental exposures.

Entry Month: 9112

Secondary Source ID: NTIS/AD-A231 185/0

Year: 90

Address: Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC. Office of
Aviation Medicine.

Identification Number: Rept no. DOT/FAA/AM-90/16

Keywords: Atmospheres

Keywords: Atmospheres; Carbon monoxide, Chambers, Comparison,
Equations, Exposure(Geneeral), High temperature, Incapacitation;

Order Number: NTIS/AD-A231 185/0, 18p

Price: NTIS Prices: PC A03/MF A01


Title: Toxicological Interactions between Carbon Monoxide and Carbon

Source: Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 05, 1988

Author: Levin BC; Paabo M; Gurman JL; Harris SE;

Abstract: TD3: Fischer 344 male rats were subjected to 30-min
individual or combined exposures of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon
dioxide (CO2). All deaths from CO occurred during the exposures, and
the LC50 values were 4600 and 5000 ppm, depending on experimental
conditions. Animals exposed to CO2 concentrations ranging from 1.3 to
14.7% for 30 min were neither incapacitated nor fatally injured. The
addition of nonlethal concentrations of CO2 (1.7 to 17.3%) to
sublethal concentrations of CO (2500 to 4000 ppm) caused deaths of the
exposed rats both during and following (up to 24 h) the 30-min
exposures. The most toxic combination of these two gases (2500 ppm CO
plus 5% CO2) increased the rate of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) formation
1.5 times that found in rats exposed to 2500 ppm of CO alone. The COHb
equilibrium levels were the same. Exposure to both CO and CO2 produced
a greater degree of acidosis and a longer recovery time than that
observed with either single gas. The results fit a mathematical model
indicating a synergistic interaction. Combustion of 11 materials at
their LC50 values indicated that CO was probably the primary toxicant
in one case and that the combined CO plus CO2 was the cause of the
deaths in three other cases. Additional fire gases need to be studied
to explain deaths from the other materials. Final rept., Sponsored by
Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Wright-Patterson

Entry Month: 8805

Secondary Source ID: NTIS/PB88-138888

Year: 87

Address: National Bureau of Standards (NEL), Gaithersburg, MD. Fire
Measurement and Research Div.

Keywords: Toxicology


Order Number: NTIS/PB88-138888, Pub. in Proceedings of Conference of
Toxicology (16th), Dayton, OH., October 28-30, 1986, p1-30 1987., 30p

Price: NTIS Prices: Not available NTIS

Supporting Agency: Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Lab.,
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.


Title: Influence of the running conditions of a diesel engine on the
mutagenic effects of its emissions

Source: Sci Total Environ; VOL 134, ISS 1-3, 1993, P61-70

Title Abbreviation: Sci Total Environ

Author: Courtois Y; Molinier B; Pasquereau M; Degobert P;

Mesh Headings: Carbon Monoxide*; English Abstract; Hydrocarbons*;
Mutagenicity Tests*; Nitrogen Oxides*; Salmonella typhimurium*;

Abstract: A direct exposure method to detect mutagenicity of car
exhausts was applied to study the influence of the running conditions
of a diesel engine functioning on an assay platform. Biological and
physico-chemical approaches were carried out together to appreciate
the quality of diesel emissions. Exhausts, emitted by a diesel engine
(Renault, 2068 cm3) were sampled from a dilution tube connected to a
constant volume sampler. Regulated pollutants (CO, NOx, HC and
particles) and some non-regulated pollutants (monoaromatic
hydrocarbons (MAH) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aldehydes)
were analysed when the engine ran at different operating conditions of
load (full, 3/4, 2/4 and 1/4) and of engine speed (from 1000 to 4000
rev./min). The mutagenicity (Ames test) of diesel exhaust was assessed
by a direct exposure method which does not need extraction of the
particles. Bacteria are pre-seeded onto the agar plate and exposed
directly to the diesel exhausts parallelly to the measurements of
pollutants. The engine speed and the load influence the level, the
composition and the induced mutagenicity of the diesel emissions and
the results show that: when engine speed increases all the gaz phase
indicators increase independently of the load, those of the
particulate phase and mutagenicity increase at low load but decrease
at full load; when load increase, all the indicators of both phases
decrease except NOx which increases.

Publication Type: JOURNAL ARTICLE

Entry Month: 9309

Language: Fre

Cas Registry Number: 0 (Hydrocarbons)

Secondary Source ID: TOXBIB/93/296693

Year: 93

Coden: UJ0

Address: LHVP, Paris, France.

ISSN: 0048-9697


Title: Coal-Fueled Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions Assessment.

Source: Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 12, 1989

Author: Fanick ER;

Abstract: TD3: The objective of this study is to develop emissions
information so that the work on coal-fueled diesel engines will
include consideration of their environmental impact and necessary
emission controls. Only emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon
monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), oxides of sulfur (SOx), and
particulates will be considered in this assessment. With the exception
of HC, there are ambient air quality standards for each of these
pollutants. Hydrocarbons are included because they are considered the
major reactant in the formation of photochemical smog. The approach
that was followed in assessing the environmental impact of a
coal-fueled diesel engine involved estimating the exhaust emissions
from such an engine based on actual test results and/or theoretical
considerations. These emission levels were then compared with emission
levels from a diesel engine application that the coal-fueled diesel
could be expected to replace. One of the most probable uses of a
coal-fueled diesel engine is in railroad locomotives. Coal-fueled
diesel emissions were, therefore, compared to the national impact of
current diesel locomotives. This comparison revealed which of the
coal-fueled diesel emissions are of concern. A study of available
emission control techniques for these emission species then defined
possible control strategies and estimated cost of such control
strategies. 65 refs., 13 tabs. (ERA citation 14:014257)

Entry Month: 8909

Secondary Source ID: NTIS/DE89000923

Year: 87

Address: Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX.

Identification Number: DOE/MC/22123-2650, Contract AC21-85MC22123

Keywords: Carbon Monoxide

Keywords: Carbon Monoxide; Coal; Diesel Engines; Fuel Slurries;
Hydrocarbons; Nitrogen Oxides; Particulates; Sulfur Oxides, Coal

Combustion, Combustion Products, Desulfurization, Emission, Exhaust
Gases, Locomotives, Pollution Abatement, Pollution Control; Air
pollution control;

Order Number: NTIS/DE89000923, Portions of this document are illegible
in microfiche products., 79p

Price: NTIS Prices: PC A05/MF A01

Supporting Agency: General Motors Corp., Indianapolis, IN. Allison Gas
Turbine Div.


Title: ASS: Abgasemission von Schiffsdieselmotoren bei
Schweroelbetrieb. (Exhaust emissions from ships diesels in heavy oil

Source: Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 19, 1992

Author: Bonk N;

Abstract: TD3: As part of the 'Exhaust Emissions from Ship's Diesels
operating on Heavy Oil' project, the objective was to adapt, test and
possibly extend existing measuring principles for exhaust and their
suitability for heavy oil operation, and to determine the exhaust
emission from a heavy oil engine. This involved recording the
quantities NO sub x , CO sub 2 , SO sub 2 , CO and O sub 2 emitted.
Among the variable parameters were load/revs, charging air
temperature, air ratio, starting time of pumping and fuel composition
by the selection of various different heavy oils. The exhaust
discoloration depended mainly on the fuel used and on the evolution of
the first phase of combustion. The emission of hydrocarbons showed
heavy load-dependency. The level of NO sub x emission was influenced
by time. At low combustion chamber temperatures, a high level of CO
emission was generated. CO sub 2 generation depended on the C:H ratio
of the fuel used. The fuel sulphur content determined the SO sub 2
emission level. (HWJ). (Copyright (c) 1992 by FIZ. Citation no.
92:001369.) In German.

Entry Month: 9211

Secondary Source ID: NTIS/TIB/A92-01369

Year: 91

Address: Hanover Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kolbenmaschinen.

Identification Number: Contract BMFT MTK0436

Keywords: Diesel engines, Ships

Keywords: Diesel engines, Ships; Exhaust gases, Air pollution,
Nitrogen oxides, Load management, Hydrocarbons, Carbon monoxide,
Sulfur dioxide;

Foreign technology;

Order Number: NTIS/TIB/A92-01369, 129p

Price: NTIS Prices: PC E14

Supporting Agency: Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie,
Bonn (Germany).


NM    :  Carbon Monoxide

REV   :  19930427

SYN   :  CO; Diesel Exhaust Component

IMIS  :  0560

CAS   :  630-08-0

NIOSH :  RTECS FG3500000

DOT   :  1016 18

DESC  :  Colorless, odorless gas.
         MW: 28      BP: -313 F      VP: >1 atm    MP: -326 F

OSHA  :  50 ppm, 55 mg/m3

TLV   :  25 ppm, 29 mg/m3 TWA

REL   :  35 ppm 8 hr TWA; 200 ppm Ceiling

SYMPT :  Headaches; tachypnea; nausea; weakness, dizziness, confusion,
         halucinations; cyanosis; depressed, ST segment of electrocardiogram;
         angina; syncope

HLTH  :  Asphyxiation, Chemical anoxia  (HE17)

ORG   :  CVS, lungs, blood, CNS

SLC1  :  MEDIA: Direct Reading Passive Monitor (Draeger Datalogger, 0-999ppm)
         MAX T: 480 minutes
         ANL 1: Direct Reading
         . REF: 2 (OSHA ID-209)    SAE: 0.07      CLASS: Fully Validated

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